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The language of “a democratically elected” government: Is it realistic?

By: Bol Khan Rom

August 10, 2014 (SSNA) -- One of the South Sudanese independent writers recently wrote an article titled “Kiir is a constitutional President not elected President of the Republic of South Sudan”. I cannot exactly remember the date on which this article was published. Though, the article was very interesting. The independent writer we are talking of is none other than Kuir e Garang, who writes from Canada. I always attentively read the articles he authors. And I do agree with him. Specifically, on the point that Kiir is not an elected President of Republic of South Sudan. He (Kiir) was a democratically elected and legitimate President of Southern Sudan. But he is now a “constitutional” or consensus President of the Republic of South Sudan. Interestingly, Mr Garang ended his article by stated that “Kiir would have become a democratically elected Republic of South Sudan’s President unless elections were held in our new Republic, after independence”.  But, did that happen? Of course, the answer to this question is a BIG NO.

I, personally, incorporated this point in one or two of my articles published before Kuir e Garang’s article. As a matter of fact, there was no Presidential election held in the Republic of South Sudan since 2011 right after the Independence. My friend Abendego Akok, Republic of South Sudan National Election Commission’s Chairperson would have invited and told me a Presidential candidate of his choice both of us could have vote for. I had been in the Republic of South Sudan until recently, that is to say up to Dec, 2013. No election process in the Republic of South Sudan was even initiated! What I know was that, Southern Sudan Political Parties by the time, on 13-17 Oct, 2010 held South-South Dialogue conference in Juba. And in that conference the same Political Parties’ Leaders agreed in a deliberate consensus that Salva Kiir would lead a Transitional national Government in the Republic of South Sudan. Should the Southern Sudan Referendum (SSR) results favor separation? So, as we speak, Bol Khan Rom, the author, is in full agreement with Kuir Garang. To be specific, on the point that Salva Kiir is not “a democratically elected/legitimate” President of the Republic of South Sudan but “a constitutional or consensus” President of the Republic of South Sudan. Take and own this truth from here.

However, let me today temporary agree to disagree with Mr. Garang, if he can also think that Gen. Pual Malong was/is not a democratically elected Governor of Northern Bahr el Gazhal State (NBGS). I am not contradicting myself. I said it is my decision to say it in the way they do! I decided or agree to change my argument today so to favor or make thing right in the hearts of the status quo and its supporters. And to see together publicly with them whether or not a language of “a democratically elected or legitimate” Government, there widely spoken uses to be logical (realistic).  Let’s go straight to the point! Gen. Pual Malong Awan is a democratically elected Governor of Northern Bahr el Gahazal State (NBGS). We know this fact. Right? He was democratically elected in general elections by the people of Northern Bahr el Gahazal state (NBGS). Whether in Southern Sudan general elections or Republic of South Sudan’s general elections (take what can please you) is none of my business. Hence, the most important point we are running after, here; if we can all agree, is that Gen. Malong Awan was/is a democratically elected or legitimate Governor of NBGS. However, is he still a Northern Bahr el Gahzal State’s Governor, now?  Why? What happened?

Yes I know, in our stained Transitional one man Constitution of South Sudan we can read it in Article 101 (r) that a state’s Governor shall be removed by the President in an event of a crisis in the state which threatens state or national security and territorial integrity. But was there anything that happened in a Northern Bahr el Gahzal state, for which he (Malong) could be removed? I think there wasn’t. Which is which now? I am confused here. Anyway, I think we have all now agreed that Gen. Pual Malong was democratically elected in the same election the President or other Governors were elected; which becomes the central point that we based our argument of “a democratically elected/legitimate” language. Then, why and who removed Pual Malong from the Governorship? The President? Who is also a democratically elected and legitimate President of Southern Sudan, sorry; Republic of South Sudan? The chief implementer of the law and South Sudan’s Transitional Constitution? Is it now a convincing notion, for a democratically elected person to remove another democratically elected one? Is this how democracy works in a circle or in an island of their own? Did the people of South Sudan in general and NBGS’s in particular fight and agree to this? I doubt. Aren’t we in an animals’ farm?  I think we are unknowingly in an animal’s farm; where it was stated that animals with two legs are better than those with four legs or vice-versa.

Therefore, I think we must logically choose from the following: Either we all agree that a language of “a democratically elected/legitimate” Government is declared invalid, especially after these messes. Or we come to our sense that a proven constitutional blunders which we created and remove “a democratically elected Governor” need correction (radical reforms) with new bloods. The technocrats, in the proposed Transitional Government of National Unity (TGoNU). In addition, I also think it is squarely absurd, for us to support a removal of “a democratically elected/legitimate” persons (like Governor Malong) and at the same time we consider Mr. Simon Kun Puoch, Upper Nile state’s Governor or President Kiir is “a democratically elected/legitimate” persons who shouldn't be touch. Take categorically incurable and deadly messes created which also kill immensely South Sudanese people! Certainly, we may be seen legally as an isolated megalomaniac clique which contradicts itself. Because, Gen. Paul Malong, Simon Kun, President Kiir, Gen. Matur Chut and so forth were all elected in the same elections by the same people of the Republic of South Sudan if not Southern Sudan. Even in a traditional way of doing things, such reasoning cannot be, or accepted. The heavenly father (Almighty God) either cannot agree. This case of (Northern BGS) alone plus the other national fatal blunders combined could earth quaked the nation we’re pretending to build. Who can tell me that the people of Northen Bahr el Gahzal state shouldn’t win the case in the court of law against the status quo? If the South Sudan Judiciary or Legal system under Justice Chan Reec Madut were to granted a chance for NBGS’s people to open such an obvious case. I think none of you will tell me. This is another version of majority South Sudanese and I which we think may bring down an irrational argument of a so-called democratically elected Government.

In conclusion, as far as my take to the status quo is concern, I would like to say that the language of “a democratically elected/legitimate” Government is just becomes a bogus defend mechanism. Which glued-like in the lips of those who have already corrupted, pocketed and messed up the nation unconstitutionally but want to cheat the nation and continue receiving their remunerations (salaries) at the expense of the people’s deaths. The language is not realistic or valid at all. Otherwise, Gen. Pual Malong Awan who was “a democratically elected/legitimate” Governor of NBGS would have not lost his position to Mr. Kuel Aguer Kuel.

Bol Khan Rom is a concerned South Sudanese. He can be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Fall of a Nation, Salva Kiir Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

By: Dong Samuel Luak

“The right to rebel and to change or overthrow a dictatorship are both constitutional and legal”. Will Mutunga, Chief Justice of Kenya

August 10, 2014 (SSNA) -- Today 10 August 2014 is a turning point in my life, marking a complete one year since I fled my Country South Sudan for security reasons after being threatened by the security for petitioning the President of the Republic of South Sudan, General Salva Kiir Mayar-dit before the Supreme Court for violation of the Transitional Constitution 2011, and his blatant infringement on the civil liberties of Mr. Pagan Amum the Secretary of the Sudan People Liberation Movement (SPLM).

By then I was trying to sound an alarm and issue a wake-up calls about the future of South Sudan. But the South Sudan Ambassador in Washington DC in an interview with Voice of America (V.o.A), downplayed the threats on my life and said the lawyer is on a visit to his family in Nairobi, Kenya. My visit continued up to date. I believe he might be visiting his family now in Juba or recalled for not promoting President Salva Kiir’s home made coup.

In 15 December 2013 the war broke out in the capitol of South Sudan, Juba, under overall command of President Salva Kiir involving his private army and Presidential Guard unit (Tiger). The reports of human rights violations, targeting killings and ethnics cleansing by human rights groups or organizations continued to stream in even today, saying no where is safe in South Sudan, with horrible accounts of atrocities committed against the civil population, by the warring parties those horrific crimes brought down the country to its knees. Including ‘declining moral values and political civility all over the country, with over-extended foreign military presence and fiscal irresponsibility by central government. ‘Who would think again that the future of this young country and its people will be at the mercy of Both President Salva Kiir and his former Vice President Dr. Riek Machar. This means, no accountability only impunity will prevail.

History reveals that all dictators and governments of men, no matter how grand, no matter how powerful, ultimately they fall. It happened to Saddam Hussein of Iraq, Husseni Mubarak of Egypt, Mummer Gadhafi of Libya and the list goes on, Even South Sudan will never be exempted it will ultimately fall if legitimacy of people who voted overwhelmingly for independence South Sudan is substituted with Salva Kiir legitimacy.

There is an old and popular saying: “Rome was not built in a day.” Likewise, the Roman Empire did not fall in one night; its decline was gradual. Not long after the birth of the new Republic of South Sudan it raised to the world’s top list of failed States, several factors were already at work contributing to the nation’s ultimate demise.

The families of our rulers living abroad while their parents are busy looting the country, fathers never took serious their roles in training, educating and properly instructing their children about how importance is the nation. The family is weakened and fractured. Also, parents came to spoil their children, who then grew up to become lazy adults. They live in a fantasy world in which they “must” have a car, cellphones, they wanted their privacy, and they needed their rights. The result? A generation of children who oppress and rule over their parents and show no respect for their elders.

The foundation of knowledge doesn’t exist; the people of South Sudan are destroyed for lack of knowledge by their parents who are the rulers today President Salva Kiir and his group are blind men groping around in spiritual darkness.

If you see Our President Salva Kiir yesterday, today and tomorrow with his siren and motorcade on Sunday going to Church to worship, which he turn to be the Temple of prostitution, drunkenness and other vices that appealed to his flesh. These were common across South Sudan government officials, deceiving, stealing, getting drunk and committing fornication, adultery, even rape! Do Salva Kiir and his colleague in government truly worship the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob? I doubt.

The President of South Sudan and his comrades are masters of extreme pleasure seeking. They entertained themselves with Nyama-choma and gambled on who would live or die. Ministers were proud of their lavish villas, imported V8s, cuisine and fine attire. They thrilled themselves with plays, bathhouses, indoor pools and drunken parties held in the honor of liberation and martyrs.

Originally, agriculture was the starting point for making wealth in South Sudan, but importing foods from Uganda was disastrous to the economy and created a massive consumer economy that focused on services rather than production and growth. With government huge public service, the presence of foreign troops and overstretched military. Having a huge army on papers not real boots on the ground makes it difficult to maintain and introduce reform into a professional army. The revolving door of army generals in all aspect of life is taking its toll on every institution.

Family, education, religion, pleasure seeking, economy, government and the military. The failure of these and other factors have contributed to the death of Salva Kiir’s government. Whether Yesterday, Today or Tomorrow South Sudan has no future under President Salva Kiir. Kerry or IGAD are only there for entrenching impunity in South Sudan.

However, the good news is, there is a future government that will be established by a perfect Leader, as foretold in Isaiah 9: “For unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given: and the government shall be upon His shoulder: and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His government and peace there shall be no end” (vs. 6-7).

An incorruptible King, Jesus Christ, will direct His government—the kingdom of God—to teach true family values; place educational institutions upon the right foundation; empower true religion to provide guidance and purpose to empty lives; maintain a global economy that will never see a depression—or even a recession; ensure that government on all levels will be free of bureaucracy; and convert all weapons to a greater purpose (Isa. 2:4).

The author could be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Open Letter to the United Nations

To:  Toby Lanzer, UN Humanitarians Coordinator

CC. Ellen Margrethe Loj Special Envoy to South Sudan and head of the U.N. peacekeeping mission in the world's newest nation.
CC. The United Nations Security Council in New York, USA
CC. UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon
CC. President of the Republic of South Sudan, General Salva Kiir Mayardit
CC: Chairperson of the Sudan People Liberation Movement in Opposition Dr Riek Machar Teny

Dear Sir,

Re: Request for re-location of the Civilians in Unity State and Bor

I would like to take this opportunity to acknowledged the commitment and the hard work of United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNIMISS) in this current crisis that have displaced thousands of civilians and others got killed in Bor on the 17th of April 2014, Juba on 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th of December 2013, as well Malakal and Unity State since the fight erupted within the Republican Guards in South Sudan.

To bring in to your attention about the situation of all the displaced persons, which I have seen have been worse and worse from time to time in some parts of the Country especially in the Unity State where most of people have nowhere to go at the movement, some of them stay on the top of trees, other dies every day in the UNIMISS Camp in Bentiu due to floods.

Sir, the reason of this open letter is to recommends some of the importance issues that need your immediate response as the person dealing with humanitarian work in the world newest nation.

Since December 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th 2013 where the massacred took place in Juba the Capital City of South Sudan where thousands of Nuer tribes were killed and there after lead to some defections in the Army units across the Republic of South Sudan in December 2013. Most of the civilians were killed in bushes while trying to escape the massacred.

Mr. Toby, after I see civilians suffering in Unity State due to floods and no good hygiene as well, I got more concern to ask your kindness as the very person dealing with Humanitarians work in South Sudan as a whole.

According to what I have read about the United Nations mandate as per the current crisis is concern in South Sudan, I have noticed the followings as the current mandate if am not mistaken;

(a) Protection of civilians

  • To protect civilians under threat of physical violence, irrespective of the source of such violence, within its capacity and areas of deployment, with specific protection for women and children, including through the continued use of the Mission’s child protection and women’s protection advisers.
  • To deter violence against civilians, including foreign nationals, especially through proactive deployment, active patrolling with particular attention to displaced civilians, including those in protection sites and refugee camps, humanitarian personnel and human rights defenders, and identification of threats and attacks against the civilian population, including through regular interaction with the civilian population and closely with humanitarian, human rights and development organizations, in areas at high risk of conflict including, as appropriate, schools, places of worship, hospitals and the oil installations, in particular when the Government of the Republic of South Sudan is unable or failing to provide such security.
  • To implement a Mission-wide early warning strategy, including a coordinated approach to information gathering, monitoring, verification, early warning and dissemination, and response mechanisms, including response mechanisms to prepare for further potential attacks on United Nations personnel and facilities;
  • To maintain public safety and security within and of UNMISS protection of civilians sites;
  • To exercise good offices, confidence-building and facilitation in support of the Mission’s protection strategy, especially in regard to women and children, including to facilitate inter-communal reconciliation in areas of high risk of conflict as an essential part of long-term State-building activity;
  • To foster a secure environment for the eventual safe and voluntary return of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees, including, where compatible and in strict compliance with the United Nations Human Rights Due Diligence Policy (HRDPP), through monitoring of ensuring the maintenance of international human rights standards by, and specific operational coordination with the police services in relevant and protection-focused tasks, in order to strengthen protection of civilians;

(b) Monitoring and investigating human rights

  • To monitor, investigate, verify and report publicly and regularly on abuses and violations of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, including those that may amount to war crimes or crimes against humanity;
  • To monitor, investigate, verify and report specifically and publicly on violations and abuses committed against children and women, including all forms of sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflict by accelerating the implementation of monitoring, analysis and reporting arrangements on conflict-related sexual violence and by strengthening the monitoring and reporting mechanism for grave violations against children;
  • To coordinate with, and offer technical support to, where appropriate, the African Union’s Commission of Inquiry for South Sudan;

(c) Creating the conditions for delivery of humanitarian assistance

  • To contribute to the creation of the conditions for the delivery of humanitarian assistance, including by helping to establish the necessary security conditions and by exercising its good offices, confidence-building and facilitation, so as to allow, in accordance with relevant provisions of international law and United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian assistance, the full, safe and unhindered access of relief personnel to all those in need in South Sudan and timely delivery of humanitarian assistance, in particular to internally displaced persons and refugees;
  • To ensure the security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel where appropriate, and to ensure the security of installations and equipment necessary for implementation of mandated tasks.

Therefore, if all those are the mandates of United Nations Mission in South Sudan, what are you waiting for? Have you not identify the safe places to re-locate the civilians that have stranded in Unity state and Bor. The situation of the civilians in Unity State is the worse one compare to the others issue globally.

Sir, I have the followings recommendations that need your quick attention.

  • First of all, I need you to call for help from the world to relocate the civilians from Unity State headquarters to the Central part of the state, where there is no flood and people are living in healthy environment, if at all there are limited funds from the International Community and if there is funds for it, then issue a decree to re-locate the vulnerable people.
  • Secondly, I want your office to come out with the decree of either taking the civilians to the safest place in South Sudan because, once there is fighting between the two rivals forces, there is always cross fire/ shooting where some civilians got killed in big numbers.

Sir, when you look in to the current crisis that is still going on with no solution in both sides, it is good to take responsibility at this time to relocates the people who are in Bentiu and Bor to the safest places in South Sudan. Civilians that are in Jonglei, should be taken to either Greater Akobo like, Wuror, Waat and Akobo respectively. You remember very well that, on 17th of April 2014, civilians were killed in Bor when the UN Peace Keepers were just watching without retaliations and moreover you keep quite in your respected office as the person dealing with Humanitarians issues in South Sudan. What is wrong with your Sir?

In Unity State as well, most of the civilians were killed as well when the government forces retake Unity State Capital when an agreement was signed in Addis-Ababa by the two rival parties already.

In conclusion, I want to acknowledge and appreciates the momentum which the International Community and United Nations is putting as per the peace processes is concern in Addis-Ababa between the two rivals groups.

Your quick response toward this open letter will be appreciated.

You can as well reply me on my email, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .


Peter Gai Manyuon,
Independent Journalist and Columnist who has written extensively on the issues of Democratization and Human Rights in South Sudan
Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

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