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South Sudan: A Tumultuous Mixture of Raw Human Hatreds (part 4)

By Wani Tombe Lako

Policies and politics of hate and revenge

June 22, 2013 (SSNA) -- In part (3) of these series of articles; it was argued that, the perennial absence of First Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit, from his office in Khartoum, as the then Vice President of the hitherto united Sudan, hurt South Sudanese interests. It also undermined his own political standing, nationally, regionally in Africa, and internationally. I am afraid that, he has not yet recovered from that. He was cocooned in Juba, for his personal interests and reasons, not to do with the comprehensive development of South Sudan. That attitude of indifference is still being demonstrated right now, by his administration, in Juba.

However, a political cynic may retort that, Lt. Gen. Mayardit could have run the government of national unity (GoNU), and the then government of South Sudan (GoSS), from Juba, no big deal. However, Juba was not the seat of the government of Sudan; it was the seat of the GoSS. All these issues have contributed to our current comprehensive ordeals in the RoSS. It was obvious that, we were starting, our governance of ourselves, by ourselves, on the wrong foot.

On the other hand, some more politically ruthless national and international commentators think that, we South Sudanese want to have our political cake and eat it at the same time. That is, we South Sudanese fought for many years for powers, and independence, and when we achieved them, we become overwhelmed with them. It now appears as if, we South Sudanese, under the failed leadership of the SPLM/A, are, politically, socially, culturally and morally, buckling and crumbling, under the combined weights of these powers and independence. We South Sudanese must do something quickly and urgently. 

Alternatively; many more ruthless commentators think that, the political shoes of powers and independence appear to be oversized for South Sudanese. Under the rudderless leadership of the SPLM/A, South Sudanese appear to want to continue, to blame others, for their own failures. This may be a subjective blanket characterisation of South Sudanese’s political and other capabilities. However, how can we logically convince these ruthless commentators otherwise, with the kind of visionless and hate, and revenge saturated, leadership, as contemporaneously demonstrated by the SPLM/A in Juba?

To return to the failures of the SPLM/A that the President was on about in 2007, it was, and it is now, obvious, to many political observers of the political landscape in South Sudan that, vengeful institutionalisation of tribalism and nepotism in South Sudan, has jointly undermined the confidence of many South Sudanese in the SPLM/A. Many South Sudanese and as well as foreigners, watch in horror, as the then GoSS, and extant RoSS, embarked on tribal manipulation of various political, judicial, security, economic, financial, legislative, socio-cultural, and administrative institutions along tribal lines.

Many South Sudanese are not happy in the manner in which the RoSS is being managed by the SPLM/A, under the direct supervision of Lt. Gen. Mayardit. Many South Sudanese are wondering, as to whether this is going to be their destiny in South Sudan, where institutionalisation of tribalism with impunity is going to be the cornerstone of the RoSS, for the foreseeable future? The institutionalisation of tribalism is a very dangerous failure on the side of the SPLM/A, and it is a dangerous violation of the Interim/Transitional Constitution of the RoSS. Therefore, the SPLM/A ought to know that, they are violating the human rights of the majority of South Sudanese by institutionalising tribalism and its paraphernalia in South Sudan.

I can strongly argue that, during the era of the internal self-determination, (200-2011), the SPLM/A violated the CPA; and the Interim/Transitional Constitution of South Sudan with impunity. Again, now, in the era of external self-determination, the SPLM/A is violating the Interim/Transitional Constitution of South Sudan with impunity. The leaders, operatives and members of the SPLM/A are ruling South Sudan through policies and politics of hate and revenge. When someone like me defends the peoples of South Sudan against these comprehensive violations of their human rights, by the SPLM/A, I am called a traitor.

For example, within the letter and spirit of the CPA, which was, and still is, the main sources of the Interim/Transitional Constitution of the Goss and the RoSS, the Power Sharing Protocol signed on 26th May 2004, says in subsection 1.6.2.13 Freedom From Discrimination that, “the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status”.

Well, it was, and it is, obvious that, the SPLM/A has grossly violated the above subsection. For instance, the phenomenon of permanent displacement of other South Sudanese, in Greater Equatoria by some more militarily equipped South Sudanese, without any concern from the RoSS, is against all human rights norms. These practices violate the right to possession and ownership of property, by the many South Sudanese, so forcefully displaced.

These practices also violate the right to individual self-determination as a human being, and this has detrimental effects on the integrities and dignities of these affected South Sudanese. There are also the violations of aggregate rights to shelter, as many South Sudanese so displaced, cannot use their lands for building human shelters. There are also the violations of aggregate rights to life.

These processes of forceful displacements render the so displaced South Sudanese vulnerable to starvations to death. They are unable to produce their food, nor to practice any life sustaining mode of production. These people are basically subsistence producers, dependent on the land so forcefully taken away from them. Such forceful displacements also threaten the sociological, cultural, and moral values of the people, whose land has been forcefully taken away from them.

The encroachment of other human persons; with different outlooks to life, and who then try to impose their alien norms, on these vulnerable people, is considered a matter of cultural genocide. These are serious human rights issues that the RoSS is ignoring to its peril. The people doing the displacement in Greater Equatoria are SPLM/A tribal militias, who also double as herdsmen, guarding and looking after the livestock of many senior SPLM/A politicians, leaders and commanders.

Further more, the vengeful allocation of counties to various states in South Sudan, on the basis of tribal strength, within the institutions of the extant RoSS, under the control of the SPLM/A is culpable. It is counterproductive to all semblances of equality, and equity in South Sudan. It is very obvious to every Bari man and woman for example that, their rights to participate in universal elections as means of choosing their leaders is very dangerously undermined, by these SPLM/A policies of distributing counties in the South Sudan.

Now then, how on earth can the Bari people for example, be equitably represented, in Parliament? All of them are lumped in just one single county, due to hateful and vengeful as well as a malicious strategy, to curtail and undermine their democratic rights. They cannot effectively participate, in the decision-making processes, in their own country? The SPLM/A know that, this is a very serious violation of the Interim/Transitional Constitution of South Sudan. However, they just do not bother, because, they are hateful and vengeful.

The extra judicial and illegal detention of South Sudanese for tribal, ethnic, and partisan reasons is a heinous violation of the human rights of those culpably detained. These practices are serious and dangerous violation of the Interim/Transitional Constitution of South Sudan. The SPLM/A and concomitantly, the RoSS are oblivious, and unconcerned, about the continuous detention of South Sudanese in Juba, and elsewhere in South Sudan, without proper legal procedures. SPLM/A officers and officials, continue to hold some South Sudanese in detention without valid reasons for such holdings.

For example, the then President of the GoSS, and the current President of the RoSS, in 2007, said that, “…the CPA…ushered in radical change in Sudan’s body politics in order to put an end once and for all to armed conflicts in our country and stifle potential sources of conflicts…”. It was, and it is still true that, the CPA ushered in radical changes in South Sudan’s body politics. The CPA gave birth to the sovereign RoSS and the breaking up of the hitherto united Sudan. However, when speaking of change, we should be aware that, there are both positive and negative changes.

Therefore, there are radical changes in the lives of South Sudanese. The fact that, the majority of us, in South Sudan, voted for the establishment of the RoSS ought to be considered as a positive development. That is, the formalistic legal, and constitutional secession of South Sudan, from the rest of the Sudan. However, critical analyses of this secession indicate that, we in fact, were almost independent from 2005, safe, for the absence of independent foreign policy, and a seat at the UN and such like.

Deep inside rural South Sudan, even in some urban and semi-urban centres in South Sudan, this territorial and associated legal and constitutional secession of South Sudan, from the rest of the Sudan means nothing. The ordinary peoples of South Sudan want to see tangible rewards, and benefits that come with this secession. They want to see that, they are safe in their villages, and in their urban centres. They want to see that they have enough food and such basic wants for life sustenance. The overwhelming majority of South Sudanese do not live in, nor do they experience, positive changes, as a result of the secession. They see the same people ruling them, with the same arrogance plus hateful and vengeful attitudes, imbued in political and security indifference.

The majority of South Sudanese are especially very confused, when they are told that, they are hungry because, political Khartoum refused them food, by closing down all borders crossing with South Sudan. They innocently ask, but, we are an independent country; why do we want political Khartoum to feed us? Some may even ask, as to what did our leaders do to protect us from these eventualities of secession from the rest of the Sudan? Unfortunately for our ordinary peoples in South Sudan, current SPLM/A rulers of South Sudan, do not know how to answer these questions, because, they never contemplated that, things were going to turn out like this. The SPLM/A rulers in Juba and elsewhere in South Sudan, want to have their political cake and eat it at the same time.

However, it is possible and practicable to carry out radical and comprehensive positive changes in a seceded South Sudan, if, we South Sudanese, have the will, and foresight to do so. We need positive developmental attitude. We need robust and dynamic, as well as all embracing and inclusive individual, group, and societal attitudes. However, right from 2005, up to date, in South Sudan, all that had happened are physical transformation of the landscape, with total exclusion of the human person.

Those SPLM/A rulers, who assumed the governance of South Sudan from 2005 to date, are dangerously imbued with dangerously static mindset, when it comes to issues of comprehensive social development of the peoples of South Sudan. Positive and radical social changes could not occur, in South Sudan, from 2005 to date, because, these SPLM/A rulers herein, are overwhelmed with policies and politics of hate and revenge. These SPLM/A rulers, in South Sudan, are predominantly imbued with deconstructive political intentions, as well as vacuous and hollow, unachievable, aspirational political slogans.

I strongly believe that, the spirit and the letter, as well as the literature and text of comprehensive radical and positive changes, contained in the CPA as well as in the Interim/Transitional Constitutions documents, as the political, legal, moral wombs; that delivered the RoSS, have not been comprehended by the leaders, operatives and members of the SPLM/A. These SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, lacked and still lack the capacities, capabilities, and the will, to translate the CPA as well as the Interim/Transitional Constitution, into beneficial and tangible goods and services on the ground, for the peoples of South Sudan. This is the true essence of external self-determination, as far as the peoples of South Sudan are concerned. 

Therefore, if the doctrine of extern self-determination cannot provide the peoples of South Sudan with the food, clean water, hospitals, security, protection, freedom of expression, freedom of movement, and some other freedoms and rights and privileges, then what good is this external self-determination? The meaning of external self-determination does not mean that, the peoples of South Sudan shall secede from the rest of the Sudan, in order to create the opportunities for these SPLM/A leaders, operatives, and members, to enjoy more exclusive powers and wealth, at the expense of the downtrodden peoples of South Sudan.

External self-determination does not mean that, the ordinary peoples of South Sudan are to enjoy the good life by proxy. That is, they enjoy life through the happiness of their rulers and their rulers’ children. This is not the right of external self-determination that the majority of our peoples voted for. That is why; many of them are beginning to wonder about the meaning of this external self-determination. Majority of South Sudanese are already disenchanted by this SPLM/A style of external self-determination.

Some SPLM/A apologists shall retort that, but, ‘Rome was not built in one day’. Fair enough, but Rome was built over centuries through positive human reason; and positive will to improve, and that is why, I am writing this piece. I am literally saying that, SPLM/A was not wired, and is not going to be rewired, with those human values and mores, which are necessary for the construction and reconstruction of functional human society. SPLM/A is a comprehensively destructive tool, sustained by hate and revenge. SPLM/A leaders have already declared that, ‘they cannot forget, and they cannot forgive…and those who disagree with them end up dead’. These are not the qualities of constructive human leaders, based on any minimum indices of civilised human values.

The radical change that is being peddled does not only mean legal and constitutional secession from the rest of the Sudan, under the supervision of the SPLM/A. It means more than that. It does not mean the offensive tribal monopoly of all political and administrative posts in the RoSS by the kith and kin of SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members only. The radical positive change ought to mean the participation of all sons and daughters of South Sudan in the process of governance. The radical positive change ought to mean the jettisoning of primordial and parochial politics of hate and revenge, to be replaced by politics of love and positive reciprocity.

Comprehensive positive change does not just occur because we have seceded from the rest of the Sudan, and then just celebrate this secession in expensive political rallies. Positive change must be believed in for it to occur. I lost hope of anything good, coming out from the conducts of the SPLM/A, as far as 2005, due to the fashion in which, they were managing the GoSS. I knew then, that, the leaders, operatives and members of the, SPLM/A were not working towards this positive change during the era of internal self-determination (2005-2011). I was also convinced that, the SPLM/A had no intention of achieving this positive change in a seceded South Sudan from 2011 to date; and I am being proven right now.

In fact, during the era of internal self-determination in South Sudan (2005-2011), the SPLM/A, implemented policies, which entrenched profound negative political changes, and which in turn, acted as concrete templates, for current comprehensive failures, in the management of sovereign South Sudan. I am afraid that, if this is allowed to continue beyond 2015, it will indeed set South Sudan back by more than a hundred years.

The SPLM/A is morally bankrupt to the extent that, it cannot lead us in South Sudan by any positive human example. For example, if, during the era of internal self-determination in South Sudan (2005-2011); SPLM/A operatives, broke down constitutional prisons, to criminally, and illegally, get out their convicted relatives, to enjoy, illegal freedoms. What kind of moral values do you think, the peoples of South Sudan can expect from the leadership of SPLM/A in a seceded South Sudan? Am I not justified, in questioning, the constitutional, legal, moral, religious, and socio-cultural abilities, of the SPLM/A, in governing an independent South Sudan?

Right from the word go, as far as 2005, the SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, perfected an aggressive attitude of not wanting to be cross examined, by the peoples of South Sudan, as regards their performances, in the governance of South Sudan. For example, one of their underdeveloped, classical intellectual tools was, always to retort that, they were starting from zero. Therefore, whenever the peoples of South Sudan complained about the lack of goods and services, even about the lack of security, the SPLM/A rulers retort that, they were starting from zero. How could they have started their security from zero, if, every one of them, was protected by armoured cars, including tanks, and platoons of armed to the teeth relatives?

On the issues of educational and other services, the SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, were politically and emotionally, anaesthetising the peoples of South Sudan that, the Jallabas in political Khartoum, were withholding their moneies, and thus, they were starting from zero. However, the foreign bank accounts of these SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members were bulging with the same monies, which were supposed, to be in Khartoum, detained by the Jallabas. Well, it did not last long, before the President of the RoSS himself, announced to the world that, the SPLM/A, did not start from zero after all; and he was pleading with his comrades, to return the looted billions of dollars, and such like, back home, to South Sudan, but via Kenya. This is the tragedy of sovereign South Sudan.

The late Dr Garang once said that, “…there can be a smoke in southern Sudan without fire…”. However, I maintain that, the peoples of South Sudan shall be the jury and the judges. The rumours about excessive embezzlement of public funds, by SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, were all over the world right from 2005. However, those of us non-SPLM/A South Sudanese were always categorised as black Jallabas, for just pointing out that, SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, were embezzling the fortunes of the downtrodden peoples of South Sudan with impunity. From 2005 onwards, the political, moral and socio-cultural as well as tribal stages, for total underdevelopment of South Sudan, were set, by the SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members.

It was ubiquitously obvious to some of us that, the comprehensive environments, developed by the SPLM/A, in South Sudan, were not conducive whatsoever, for the establishment of an independent sovereign state, to be handed in a golden plate to the SPLM/A. It was not that, nor is it that, the peoples of South Sudan do not deserve their own country; it was, and it is, the fact that, the peoples of South Sudan were going to be cheated, and are being cheated; out of the fruits of this independent sovereign country. What is now happening in South Sudan is exactly the actualisation and operationalisation of those fears. See you in (Part 5).

The author is Professor of Social and Rural Development and Lecturer in Laws. He be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Where SPLM ends, South Sudan’s future is set to begin!

By: Justin Ambago Ramba

June 20, 2013 (SSNA) -- In the new country of South Sudan politics never seems to satisfy the peoples’ unlimited appetite to know exactly how their country is run. But never be disappointed or be bored when this politics turns to endless talks about corrupt officials right from the office of the president, to the ministers and down to the different levels of the government’s officials, for this is  the rebels turn rulers’ style of governance.

The latest development in what seems like an endless drama is the president’s move to suspend two of his most senior federal ministers over corruption. Aware of how long these two have served with president Kiir since the bush days, and throughout the rough era of the partnership in the so-called Government of National Unity (GoNU) with the northern National Congress Party (NCP) of Omer al Bashir, one is tempted to say that the working relationship between the trio must have taken a turn for the worse.

And no one should be fooled into believing that President Salva is any different than his fellow comrades when it comes to corruption, tribalism or nepotism. If not for the persistent pressure from the international community neither Kiir nor any of the SPLM big shots are prepared to give any damn about corruption or money going missing from the government’s coffers since they became the rulers  in South Sudan.

Examples are in abundance to support this argument for its now ages since the public learned of the missing $4 billion dollars, and although the culprits – 75 of them [current and former ministers and senior officials], are all known to the president, yet he is unable to bring them to the book.

Not too long ago, an amount of money initially report to be over $6 million dollars went missing from the president’s office in Juba.  Those accused in this act of theft turned out to be the president’s own kinsmen whom he had appointed to work in his office, in line with the institutionalized nepotism practiced the nationwide. In short, operations ‘signal left and turn right’!

This theft case which only became of a concern to the president after having been exposed by the media, has now reached a dead end. The anti-corruption committee in its post investigation report, made it clear that the investigation into the case was not any easy nor straight forward as people in power kept interfering with the evidences.  Finally it is now concluded that the theft in the president’s office was a work of an insider, maybe the president himself colluding in it, is what we are yet to be told.

Salva Kiir’s latest fall off with two of his top ministers, has only increased the streets appetite for more probes to be carried out in this corruption infested country. People would like to hear and see people like the deputy minister of interior Lt. General Salva Mathok Gengdit relived of their positions and immunities as well, and to face questioning in the suspicious murder of a 25 year old traffic policeman, Banyjioth Mathoat Tap from the Bul Nuer community, whose body was found under Mathok’s house on 30 March. [ST http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?page=imprimable&id_article=46547]

Besides that there was that infamous CID senior officer by the name of Major General Marial Nour Jok, who was arrested on the order of the president himself over the disappearance of a young survey engineer John Luis Silvino.

All circumstantial evidences pointed to the fact that it was this CID murderer who summoned the missing engineer to his office, before finally going missing. As you read these lines, this ruthless murderer is now on the loose after the president knowing allowed him to be smuggled out of the country where he is claimed to be receiving treatment in the neighbouring Kenya for over a year now.

My personal take here is in fact to encourage President Cmdr. Kiir Mayardit in his latest campaign even if it means that he will end up losing the SPLM chairmanship in the illusive party convention. For he has for a long time now deafened people by his “much talk but  little do” so-called ‘zero tolerance’ or the other equally empty slogan of so-called “no reverse gear”.

As the author of this humble article I have no much to gain by going into the other speculations as to why the president   acted differently this time around, nonetheless the street is already saturated with all kinds of stories to justify the his action.  Be reminded that  in places like South Sudan where true information are easily rumoured in the market places or drinking joints, whatever is rumoured in “Konyo-Konyo”  Market, is nothing but the sole true.

So according to the “Konyo-Konyo” Candour,  the president’s action against the finance minister could have resulted from the minister’s recent order in which he reshuffled  a number of senior staff  within the  ministry of finance. The staff in question had threatened the minister and reportedly forwarded their petition to the president asking him to force the minister to reverse his decision.

Another mouth –piece for the unhappy members of staff in the ministry of finance, who are resisting the ministerial orders on internal reshuffle, has already labeled the minister’s action as tribalistic, since the   three staff members in the centre of this controversy happen to his kinsmen, and not from the same tribe as the minister.

Of course in a community that wakes on tribalism, spends the whole day in activates meant to promote and entrench tribalism and only goes to sleep and wakes up to another similar day, every ones misfortune can be labeled as a tribal motivated incident planned by another rivalry tribe.

In other words, it means for a promotion or demotion, transfer or even internal reshuffles to go down well with South Sudanese officials or workers alike, such authorization must come from one’s own kinsmen; otherwise it is right away considered as an act of tribalism! What a society to live in?

While in the case of Deng Alor Kuol – Minister for Cabinet Affairs, others speculate that he might be a victim of the ongoing SPLM party’s inner fights.  Like millions of other people in this unfortunate country, he too is seen to have withdrawn his support from the president, in favour of the more charismatic SPLM Secretary General, Pa’gan Amum Akeich, rumoured to be preparing to challenge the incumbent chairman come the convention.

Whichever  way the current scenarios head to,  for the average South Sudanese in the towns, villages, luaks, and those in the diaspora, it has long been concluded that neither President Salva Kiir Mayardit nor his ‘rotten to the core’ SPLM party has any salvation to provide for this  fast sinking country. While we encourage them to finish each other, we look forward to a better South Sudan without any of them.

Dr. Justin Ambago Ramba is the Secretary General of the United South Sudan Party (USSP). He can be reached at: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

South Sudan: A Tumultuous Mixture of Raw Human Hatreds (part 3)

By Wani Tombe Lako

June 20, 2013 (SSNA) -- Way back in South Sudan, on the 9th January 2007, in the football stadium in Juba, the then President of the government of South Sudan (GoSS), and the current President of the sovereign Republic of South Sudan (RoSS), said that, “…there are still elements who wish to wreak havoc in other parts of southern Sudan with the support of those who do not want the south to be peaceful. This will not be allowed to continue…”. This was during the second anniversary of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA).

Policies and politics ofhate and revenge,

Just like now, South Sudan was awash with all types of armed groups, waging various tribal and other wars, against the SPLM/A, which controlled the GoSS, and which still now control the RoSS. It appeared then, and still appears now that, the SPLM/A are hesitant, to take their histories into proper considerations. The SPLM/A leaders, operatives and general membership, always, consider their enemies, as those who do not belong within their organisation. Therefore, these others are always viewed as being bent, on wreaking havoc in South Sudan. There is always this “we” and “they” culture; in the selfish psychic of the SPLM/A, and yet, we are supposed to be a “people (s)”, who used the doctrine of self-determination, to establish the RoSS.

Those other South Sudanese, from outside the SPLM/A, are always and permanently, considered as being not nationalistic, thus, they are the enemies of South Sudan. For example, in November 2004, the former Deputy President of the GoSS, and the current number two men in the RoSS, Dr Riek Machar said that, “…I believe that unless something happens in Khartoum, the war is over. Unless the enemy causes us to split, the war is over. This requires us to expedite the re-organisation of our army…” (See page 20, para 2, of the confidential reports of the Rumbek meeting).

If one may ask the current nominal number two man in the RoSS; a very simple political question; when he lead his Nasir Faction against the so-called SPLM/A Mainstream in 1991, did he do it under the direct instruction of the enemy of the South Sudanese peoples? I think that, the peoples of South Sudan; and the entire world, demand a frank answer.

If the answer is that, no, Dr Riek Machar did not act under the directives of the enemy of the peoples of Sudan. Well then, why did he declare that revolt against the SPLM/A then? If the argument is that, he did declare the revolute because, he did not agree with the policies of the SPLM/A, and therefore, he was acting out of nationalism, within the remit of South Sudanese nationalism; fair enough.  

Well then, why do the leaders of the SPLM/A now, including Dr Riek Machar himself,  think that, if there are others, in South Sudan, who do not agree with the current policies and actions of the SPLM/A,  why are these others considered, enemies of the peoples of South Sudan? Why do the leaders of the SPLM/A, use this dangerous political equation, whereby, the SPLM/A equal South Sudan and vice-versa? The late Dr Garang is in record, in which, he publicly, said that, the SPLM/A, are the minority in South Sudan.

I can strongly argue that, The SPLM/A is not equal South Sudan and vice-versa. The SPLM is a political party in South Sudan, and it is made up of a very negligible number of South Sudanese. On the other hand, based on historical and current conducts of the SPLA, the SPLA is not the national army of South Sudan. It is the military wing of the SPLM, and with the same token, it does not represent the entire peoples of South Sudan. If anybody doubts this statement, let us carry out a head count of the SPLA officers and men, and then decide if they represent the peoples of South Sudan in their entire tribal groupings.

There are some very dangerous people in the SPLM/A, and in leadership positions, as well as some dangerous members and operatives in the SPLM/A. These people, collectively and wrongly, think in a very puzzling political fashion. They, absolutely believe that, all of them, in the SPLM/A, are Prophets and Holy men and women. Therefore, the harm to South Sudan, could, and shall only come, from non-SPLM/A South Sudanese. These non-SPLM/A South Sudanese, according to these SPLM/A Prophets and Holy men and women; are ordinary humans, who are rottenly sinful, and they salivate for wreaking havoc in South Sudan.

Well, look at the history of the SPLM/A. This history is unbelievably, saturated with countless processes of defections from; and equally, countless processes of rejoining of the SPLM/A. This seductive political and military dance of life and death, has been historically and contemporaneously, performed, by, countless; current SPLM/A leaders, and operatives. Therefore; why do these SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, treat the processes of, rejoining the SPLM/A, as holy cleansing processes?

That is, whereby, those with hitherto, disruptive political habits, and tendencies, acquire political, and military sainthood statues, subsequential upon their rejoining of the SPLM/A? My dear citizens of South Sudan, we must wane ourselves from politics of emotions. Therefore, to understand and comprehend, the havoc, inflicted upon the peoples of South Sudan, by the leaders, operatives and members of the SPLM/A, read the book titled, Emma’s War A True Story, (by Deborah Scroggins, ISBN: 0-375-70377-2).

Once you finished reading this book, the inferno of raw tribal human hatreds, which traumatised thousands of South Sudanese, will make you understand the meaning of South Sudan, as a tumultuous mixture of raw human hatreds. Compare the acts and omissions of these SPLM/A leaders, operatives, and members, as narrated by Deborah Scroggins, by the genuine concerns of people like myself, based on these tragedies that our people have been subjected to, by some people in the SPLM/A.

This book, by Deborah Scroggins, is a true account of an eye witness, to some of the havoc created in South Sudan, by others in the SPLM/A, who are now pretending to be the Prophets and Holy men and women, in South Sudan. They are now blaming other South Sudanese, of wreaking havoc in South Sudan. It is unfair for South Sudanese, to be lead by other human beings, who ought to be under some criminal investigations, for crimes against humanity, and even genocide in South Sudan. There are living victims of these SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, who are willing to come forward, to testify for crimes committed against them, and their love ones.

Now, I would like the SPLM/A leadership, operatives and members, to carry out a political and military soul searching exercises, to discover as to whether, the havoc that is being wreaked in South Sudan right now, just barely two years, into independence, is truly occurring as a result of outsiders’ conspiracy. I strongly argue that, others within the SPLM/A, and within the paradigms of politics of schism and vengeful revenge, within the SPLM/A, are busy, wreaking havoc in South Sudan. The SPLM/A, and through their rotten and corrupt officials, and generals, have wrecked, and continue to wreck economic and financial, plus other havocs, on South Sudan. They are literally strangling South Sudan with all of us therein.

The former President of GoSS, and the current President of the RoSS, Lt. Gen. Mayardit, is already in record, in which he confessed that, there are others within the SPLM/A, who are more dangerous than the defined enemy of the SPLM/A. Let the SPLM/A cleans itself of this intrinsic and self-made enemy from within, before they begin to hopelessly rummage for political and military hangers, to hang on their political and military debacles, and sagas in the SPLM/A, in particular, and South Sudan in general.

In South Sudan, the historical and contemporaneous political culture of personalising national issues is thwarting and frustrating, genuine national political debate, for the resolution of our comprehensive challenges. There is this dangerous political believe, within the SPLM/A, and government in South Sudan that, whenever, a South Sudanese, like myself, points out some governmental mistake, she/he is automatically, labeled, an enemy of the people. On the other hand, when one supports some positive act by the government, the person is accused of lobbing for an appointment to some constitutional position by the President of the RoSS.

There are many people within the SPLM/A, who erroneously believe that, some of us in South Sudan, cannot meaningfully, and beneficially, survive outside of tribalist tag. I strongly believe that, there are many South Sudanese, who have succeeded, as individuals, without tribal support and leverage. Such individuals ought not to be treated in subjective fashions, just because of their tribal identity. However, tribalism and nepotism remain the Scylla and Charybdis of governance in South Sudan; such that, avoidance of one increases the risk from the other. Tribalism and nepotism are our Sisyphus ordeals in South Sudan, under the leadership of the rudderless SPLM/A.

For example, the current Speaker of Parliament, in South Sudan, Hon.Wani Igga, who has been referred to, by the then Cdr. John Luk, and current Minister of Justice, in the RoSS; in their Rumbek discussions, in November 2004, as being politically weak, said, that, “…there are two examples to illustrate the issue of nepotism. One is the removal of Aleu Anyeng from his position and his replacement by the Chairman with an officer from his home village. Another is the appointment of Dr Lual Deng as an advisor to the Chairman. We all heard this in a meeting in which the Chairman announced Lual’s appointment without any official procedures followed. When I talk about regional imbalances, all I need to say is that no Equatorian was even allowed to be a signatory to any of the six protocols. We are making history and this history should involve all the people of New Sudan. The protocols are only signed by individuals from Bahr El Ghazal, Upper Nile, Nuba Mountains and Funj…”. (See page 19, para. 2 of the confidential report of Rumbek meeting).

In January 2007, in Juba, the current President of the RoSS, who was then, the President of the GoSS, said, “…As a man who affixed his signature on the Machakos Protocol, the Framework Agreement on which the CPA was based, I shall not dishonour it by keeping silent on any violation of the Agreements. Indeed I acknowledge that there are failures on our part that led to delays in the CPA implementation. We boldly admit those failures, but I shall not make the failures of others to be my own…”.

The President was addressing a crowd in Juba football stadium, but he did not elaborate on those failures attributed to the SPLM/A, and which failures had, and continue to have devastatingly negative effects on the general lives of the peoples of South Sudan. It is worth mentioning that, in 2007, South Sudan was enjoying the right of internal self-determination. That is, we were in fact running South Sudan, with monetary resources more than that of Uganda and Kenya combined, in terms of various monies, pouring in, into South Sudan from various sources, including the revenue from the sale of the crude oil.

Even though the President failed to mention those failures by then, it was already obvious to keen watchers of South Sudan that, things were not going well, and the comprehensive interests of the peoples of South Sudan were being compromised, and relegated to afterthought agendas.

Notwithstanding the ubiquitous affluence that was attracting many peoples from various corners of the world to South Sudan, the native peoples of South Sudan were groaning under abject and chronic poverty. These were instances of gross violations of the trust, and gross negligence, in the discharge of the fiduciary duties, that the peoples of South Sudan, entrusted in the hands of the SPLM/A. We are now harvesting the cumulative effects of those violations, which are not being corrected by the SPLM/A.

By 2007, it was very obvious to anyone who cares about the ordinary woman, child, and man, in South Sudan that, every SPLM/A cabinet minister, and state minister in the then government of national unity (GoNU) in Khartoum, was very busy, amassing liquid and fixed assets, in a frighteningly quick tempos. Political Khartoum almost turned a blind eye to what these South Sudanese ministers were doing.

Many diplomats in Khartoum were also privately wondering about the free for all attitudes of these, supposedly freedom fighters of South Sudan, who came to town, to emancipate their peoples from gross marginalisations by the Jallabas as it were. These conducts were taking their political negative effects in some of us, who were, and are still genuinely concerned, about the downtrodden peoples of South Sudan. It was obvious to discerning eyes and brains that, the majority of these SPLM/A GoNU ministers, were behaving as if, they were carrying out a revenge on somebody.

These ministers in Khartoum failed to understand that, they were indeed, letting down their own peoples in South Sudan. By this time, the current laisser-faire attitude, prevalent, in the RoSS, as regards the ubiquitous gross lack of duty of care, towards the peoples of South Sudan, by the SPLM/A led government, was already taking shape. Just barely two years into the implementation of the CPA.

By this time also, for example, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in Khartoum, which was allocated to the SPLM/A, it was already awash with familiar names, from particular tribes in Upper Nile, Greater Equatoria, and Bahr El Ghazal. These were names of the relatives, sons, brothers, daughters, and such like, of those leaders, operatives and members of the SPLM/A only. Therefore, what were we, and are we, the rest of the downtrodden peoples of South Sudan, supposed to think, in terms of an independent South Sudan?

Within the GoSS, in South Sudan, in 2007, the political environment was already chaotic. All public and private assets were up for grab, by anybody in government and out of government, who was associated with the SPLM/A. All such SPLM/A associates, were claiming their dues from everybody and everything in South Sudan. Their dues which they claimed, they did not get during the period when they were liberating us in the bushes of South Sudan. That attitude of free for all is still hurting us today in 2013, thanks to zero-tolerance of corruption by President Kirr of the RoSS.

Therefore, was this not, and is it not now, blatant violation of the rights of the peoples of South Sudan? This was the attitude, and is still the attitude, which the SPLM/A brought into the governance of South Sudan, during the period of internal self-determination, or the Interim Period, according to the CPA, and which is now, being used, in the governing of South Sudan, during the era of external self-determination, that is, a seceded South Sudan, according to the CPA.

On the same day, that is, 9th January 2007, the President of South Sudan said, in Juba, “…Need I to tell you, dear countrymen, that the man who stands before you now wears three hats-the hat of the First Vice President of the Republic, that of the President of the Government of Southern Sudan as well as the hat of the SPLM Chairman, the party signatory to the CPA. My responsibilities therefore, diverge and intertwine and in taking stock of what were achieved, or not achieved, I shall wear those hats interchangeably…” 

That was a dramatic statement, from almost the most powerful person in the Sudan by then, if not in the African region. For those who did not know, it is fair, for historical reasons, to state that, during this period, the chair of the First Vice President in the Republican Palace, in Khartoum, was almost, perennially vacant. The supposed occupant was always in Juba. It was commonplace knowledge that, many Sudanese; international personalities; international institutions and organisations were, genuinely baffled, and politically dumfounded, by the perennial, and entrenched absence of Lt. Gen. Mayardit from his Vice Presidential office in the Republican Palace in Khartoum.

This conduct negatively affected us, and issues like the Abeyei and the border problem remained unresolved, because, our leaders were always in Juba, in a more familiar environment. Not only that, continuous absence of the SPLM/A First Vice President from cabinet meetings in Khartoum, contributed to SPLM/A ministers not being keen in performing their jobs, in the best interests of the peoples of South Sudan.

It was obvious to some of us that, the SPLM/A leaders wanted to be in Juba not because they wanted to develop South Sudan, but, Juba was, and is, where the loot is, and Juba was, and is, where they can actively protect their interests, from their yester years rivals, who would like to settle old political and military pending scores. These cumulative negative conducts of the SPLM/A leaders, contributed to the abysmal performance of the GoSS, during the period of internal self-determination, and this failures were carried forward into the era of external self-determination from 2011 to date. (See you in part 4).

The author is Professor of Social and Rural Development and Lecturer in Laws. He be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

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