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More rough times ahead for South Sudan!

By: Justin Ambago Ramba

June 25, 2013 (SSNA) -- Of recent everything and everyday has come to look the same for South Sudan before even celebrating its second Independence anniversary. Under President Salva Kiir’s leadership, the peoples’ hopes for an agrarian society have long evaporated while his Excellency continues to hire and fire and rehires and fires again. Does he really has anything to show for?!!

Eventually a new country is brought to an abrupt halt as a result of incapacity right in the top office. Today neither the country’s internal politics nor its external engagements are any closer to its peoples’ expectations. For in both cases the thermometers have persistently recorded very high reading, especially so lately when scales seem to offer no any assurances.

The strained relationship between Juba and Khartoum continues to dominate the news headlines. And as things are far from being rosy, there are every reason to predict that president Kiir’s administration is yet to face huge challenges ahead, as it struggles to adjust amid all these hiring and the firing drama of senior officials and ministers alike.     

First this administration is not doing well to secure the future of the country’s Oil industry which represents over 98% of the revenues. Kiir has been to China last year, and he was referred back to sort out things with al Bashir. Not too long he was also in Japan, and no much was heard, with exception of the old wild talk about a certain Toyata company which accepted to build the pipeline to Lamu. Nothing new!

Secondly this government’s performance in the field of Human Rights will continue to strain relationship with the international community which has for a very long time, carried the burden of filling in the gaps in the weak economy and rudimentary service sectors.  

The US administration and the Communist China are all working day and night to deter Al Bashir of Sudan from implementing his declared threats to shut down the oil pipelines. As things stand now, one can say that President Kiir can only pray for the goodwill of these two superpowers to pressure Khartoum into reversing its hostile position on South Sudan’s Oil industry. 

With China, it’s of course business and truly business without attaching any of those strings like Human Rights Records or Good Governance, issues often brought to the table when Western governments deal with Sudan and South Sudan and in line with their policies towards most third world countries. 

For this reason alone, it can be said that whether the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) enters Khartoum and takes over the seat of power or it is the other way round with the ruling NCP succeeding in putting an end to the country’s many rebellions or /and completely eradicating the indigenous people in the Nuba Mountains, Darfur, or the Blue Nile Region, all these could be Okayed by China as long as they never impact negatively on its multibillion dollar business investments in the country.

While  the South Sudan and Sudan relationship are important for the Chinese interests in the region, it cannot be overstressed that they too [Chinese] , like it is case with the above scenarios, see no point in favoring one side over the other after South Sudan has become a sovereign state, run from Juba and not Khartoum any more.

The Chinese need the Oil, which is mainly produced in the South, and can only at the present be transported through the Chinese built pipelines across the North, for export to China and elsewhere. In this case, the best that China can do as a way to safeguard its investments, is to discourage and disapprove any of the very frequent political brinkmanship that characterizes the North Sudan and South Sudan relationship.

It’s in China’s interest if the two Sudans can rather take their historical hostilities away from the Oil industry or other areas where Beijing has, and is planning to invest. If the Sudanese and the South Sudanese fail to see the relevancy of sticking with programs that will alleviate the sufferings of their poor citizens, and rather engage in promoting border warfare and subversive activities to undermine the sovereignty of the other, then China for its own interest will be forced to discipline the two.

On the other hand, the Western governments and especially so, countries like the US, UK, Norway, although all had directly invested heavily in the wake up to South Sudan’s independence, they are all terribly disappointed with this new country’s record on Human Rights and Good Governance.

Reports,  year after year from the Human Rights Watch (HRW), the International Crisis Group, the Center for Journalism Studies (CJS), and the US State Department, are all critical of the performance of Salva Kiir Mayardit’s government on Human Rights which has persistently been characterized by gross violations.

As a concerned South Sudanese citizen, it doesn’t in any way take me by any surprise to read the numerous reports about my country’s appalling Human Rights records under President Salva Kiir’s leadership. Nonetheless these reports as written by the international bodies and other foreign countries friendly to South Sudan are to be seen as signs of concern by South Sudan’s friends and all those well-wishers.

It also encourages the people that their plights have really reached the international community, thanks to the development in the ICT; no death in the most remote parts of the world can go unreported. But as the deaths after deaths [e.g. Engineer John Luis Silvino, Isaiah Abraham, and many others] have now been brought to the attention of the world and rightly acknowledged as extra judiciary killings, the next step would be to hold the president and his executives responsible and work hard to bring them to the book.    

Did I hear someone mention the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague? Yet the people of South Sudan expect these countries like USA, Britain, Norway and others to do more than just condemning Salva Kiir and his government for running not only   a police state, but in fact presiding over slaughter houses being manned by butchers who relate to the president through kinship, and patronage.

It’s true that corruption and graft are ubiquitously practiced at all levels of Kiir’s government, and be reminded that these vices were allowed to take root by design. President Kiir and his cronies, planted it, then nurtured it and are now harvesting its fruits. Everything here happens for a reason as designed by His Excellency.

And it can no longer be held as a secret that President Salva Kiir Mayardit had planned to buy loyalties in order to cling to power. This,  he has made by many other ways,  including handing out millions of dollars of the public money to his associates, kinsmen, loyalists and cronies.

He also had over the past years,   been very reluctant to prosecute his ministers and executive officials who were accused of grafts in the millions and billions of dollars. This has been the situation throughout his tenure in office over the past eight years.  He was clearly avoiding any attempts  that could be seen as stirring  the political waters within and without the SPLM party, as his way of buying loyalties, the old fashioned Jallaba style. But this must end, and so must Kiir’s term in office ended as well, come 2015.

No one can be made to accept the president’s  latest move to fire two of his most senior ministers- Deng Alor and Kosti Manibe, just like that and  without  asking even the most basic  questions,  like why now and not before?  Whatever that thing which forced Salva Kiir to part ways with these two senior comrades, has more to do with Kiir’s own survival in power and as a person than it is to do with the good of the Country.

This being the case, whatever the president's hopes to avoid by sacrificing,  both Alor and Manibe must for sure be something very huge and an imminent danger. It must also be so huge, that preventing it can only be by  sacrificing Hon. Deng Alor & Hon. Kosti Manibe. In other words only sacrifices of their calibers were necessary to secure the redemption of whoever was (were) to be redeemed. If it is true that everything in politics has a price, then the price being paid by the SPLM rulers through their sacrifice of two of their most senior members is so big that it can never go unnoticed.

However the track records and history of this leadership, past and present, have undoubtedly pushed SPLM’s friends before the enemies to pass a very strong verdict  against Salva Kiir and his leadership style,  both of which are now beyond human redemption.  And completely unredeemable as it is, and by all standards, this government is heading towards a self-inflicted disaster of the implosion type...

As stated somewhere in this article, President Salva Kiir lacks both the political shrewdness and the necessary pragmatism to settle the border demarcation stalemate with Khartoum.  Nor is he a visionary leader to guarantee a steady flow of his country’s Oil to the world markets, through Port Sudan, Lamu, Mombasa, Djibouti or otherwise. Talking without taking actions is NOT being visionary!

Whatever that president Kiir is up to in his last days in office, will NEVER buy him the trust he has so far lost. And when you look far on the horizon, you can only see more hard times ahead for a leader who has nothing more to offer! Is it not time that he calls it a day and packs!

Dr. Justin Ambago Ramba is the Secretary General of the United South Sudan Party (USSP). He can be reached at: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

South Sudan: A Tumultuous Mixture of Raw Human Hatreds (part 5)

By Wani Tombe Lako

June 24, 2013 (SSNA) -- The SPLM/A leaders came to town in 2005, with bad political faith. Based on their conducts and political, as well as socio-cultural attitudes, I can adduce evidence which indicate that, if not all, the majority of SPLM/A operatives and members; came to town saturated, with dangerous political culture of differentiation; as opposed to that of integration of South Sudanese. The political dice, for comprehensive instabilities of South Sudan, were cast; immediately, after the assassination, murder, or death of the late Dr Garang.

All political and other processes, for the re-formation of the government of South Sudan (GoSS) in 2005, after the untimely demise of the late Garang, were ubiquitously characterised by fratricidal bloody feuds. These feuds were between the late Dr Garang supporters, or the Orphans, and Lt. Gen. Kiir loyalists. The operationalisation of these feuds, heralded in, destructive policies and politics of hate and revenge, during the era of internal self-determination (2005-2011); or the interim period as per the CPA.

These feuds were partly played out in the form of armed conflicts in South Sudan, between various groups and the SPLM/A. The SPLM/A only know the language of the AK47, and it could not, and shall not be able to devise peaceful political modalities, for the resolution of all entrenched disputes between known tribes in South Sudan. The era of internal self-determination 2005-2011 witnessed the perfection of tribal warfare in South Sudan. The SPLM/A made is worse by forceful and selective disarmament of some tribes in South Sudan, while at the same time, allowing other tribes to carry fire arms; under the pretext of protecting their livestock.

The SPLM/A were, and are still, using policies and politics of hate and revenge, in the selective disarmament of tribes in South Sudan. For example, those other tribes, allowed, to carry their fire arms, by the SPLM/A, were, and are not, the only people, and tribes, in South Sudan, who are in need of fire arms, to protect their livestock and assets. If that was, and it still is, the logic, for allowing other South Sudanese, to carry fire arms, in South Sudan, then, there is no logical and legal reason, to disarm others.

Those unfortunate tribes, who are maliciously disarmed by the SPLM/A, are rendered vulnerable to armed attacks, by other South Sudanese, using fire arms, provided to them, by the SPLM/A. I am not by all means, encouraging uncontrolled possession of fire arms in South Sudan. What I am saying is that, the SPLM/A lead government in the RoSS, must come to its senses that, it cannot tailor make laws, for specific groups and tribes in South Sudan. All South Sudanese ought to have the same rights, duties, obligations and privileges. All South Sudanese   must suffer same legal sanctions, for breach of legal rules.

I strongly support all genuine governmental efforts to establish the rule of law in sovereign South Sudan. However, the current SPLM/A lead government in Juba, does not seem to appreciate the logic of peace among South Sudanese. The government in Juba is acting as if, this wished for tranquility among the peoples of South Sudan, ought to come raining down like Manna from Heaven, on us.  The RoSS is the direct outcome of peaceful negotiation. Why should not the SPLM/A use the letter and the spirit of the CPA as the guiding star in their journey of leadership in South Sudan?

I sincerely do not understand as to why, the majority of SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, allow themselves, to be controlled by individual and group hatreds and revenge, against other South Sudanese? Not only this, but, these hateful and vengeful SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, do unfortunately, translate their personal hate and revenge, into national policies and politics. With this kind of political culture in place, in South Sudan, I cannot see any semblance of positive human futures, for the peoples of South Sudan, in a sovereign South Sudan, under the leadership of the SPLM/A, liberation history notwithstanding.

With the perfection of these hateful and vengeful policies and politics in South Sudan, it is just a wishful thinking for us, to sit here in South Sudan, and miraculously expect the emergence of a conflict free South Sudan, in both relative and absolute terms. It is just illogical, for us in South Sudan, under the leadership of the SPLM/A, to become engrossed in tribal politics, saturated in fratricidal hate, and revenge, and then, blame regional and international legal and human persons for such human carnage.

Why do we become so morally, religiously, socially, and culturally so feeble, to the extent that, we become political pawns, in other people’s hands, for self-destruction? I am profoundly concern that, should this degree of internal violent conflict persist in South Sudan, we shall not be able to refute or rebut accusations, by others, that, we are not fit to rule ourselves by ourselves.

Specialised UN Agencies are already taking note, and becoming interested in the gross violations of human rights in South Sudan. The SPLM/A can easily attract the attention of the UN Security Council, to the extent that, South Sudan can easily become a subject of Chapter VII of the UN Charter 1945. If it happened to other nations, it can also happen to us. This is a fact, and the SPLM/A leadership in Juba must take note of this.

I am writing as a hurting South Sudanese, who wants to be lead by honest and sincere leaders in South Sudan. I detest, to be lead, by some collection of individuals, who aggregately, posses the herd mentality of paramount tribal African chiefs. Due to this said mentality, the SPLM/A in Juba, treat the Public Central Bank of South Sudan, and other associated public financial and economic institutions, therein, like village tribal granaries; under their sole and absolute primordial and parochial control.

In fact, logical and objective analyses of SPLM/A leadership conducts in Juba, invoke in me, the feelings that, we South Sudanese, are, under the leadership of some tribal hunters, gatherers, fishermen, herdsmen, warriors, medicine men, and the lot, entrusted with the fiduciary duties of running a modern government in the 21st Century. For example, the current debacle in Juba around Deng Alor and Kosti Manibe. Where on earth do presidents approve the procurement of public assets? That ought to be the duties of senior civil servants, as run-of-the-mill government procurement processes subject to procurement laws.

I have run the General Directorate for Procurement, in the Federal Ministry of Finance and National Economy in Khartoum, in the then united Sudan, and I have supervised over the disbursement of hundreds of millions of dollars, earmarked for government procurements. I did all this without even referring to the Cabinet of Ministers for approval. Not only that, Federal Ministers do not even come in for such procurement processes. In fact, I have even rejected the procurement of the Republican Palace’s telephony project because; it did not follow the right procurement procedures. The Palace had to resubmit their documents to my office. That is what we call government procumbent process.

Anyway, what has the SPLM/A done in South Sudan, during the internal self-determination era 2005-2011, and what are they doing now, during this era of external self-determination, in order to stifle internal conflict in South Sudan, which has been under their absolute control since 2005? For example, can we consider the institutionalisation of tribalism in South Sudan as semblance of a process, for stifling conflict in South Sudan?

Can we consider the grazing of livestock on other peoples’ agricultural food crops as the stifling of conflict in South Sudan? Can we treat random raping of women by SPLA soldiers in Munuki residential area in Juba and elsewhere, as the stifling of conflict? Is the imposition of inexperienced, badly educated, and arrogant civil servants on other experienced, properly educated and highly qualified South Sudanese, the stifling of conflict in South Sudan?

Is the fencing off of other people’s private lands, as well as tribal lands, to be distributed to SPLM/A operatives and others, the stifling of conflict in South Sudan? Is general political and military arrogance by SPLM/A operatives the stifling of conflict in South Sudan? I can go on forever, in terms of acts and omissions, that are attributable to the SPLM/A, that cannot be considered as instances, or, processes of stifling conflict in South Sudan. Critical thinking, in terms of comprehensive conflicts in South Sudan, appears to indicate that, the SPLM/A is to blame.

I always, and shall continue to objectively argue that, SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, are submerged in negative political self adulation, to the extent that, they think of themselves as political deities, and deities that are morally upright. No. SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members; are humans like all of us. They must work harder; towards, disabusing themselves, of all acts and omissions, that are not consistent with the stifling conflict in South Sudan.

I can strongly argue that, SPLM/A’s, irresponsible leadership, is one sure way of stirring and sustaining conflict in South Sudan. There are strong reasons to worry that, SPLM/A style of leadership verges on the dysfunctional. Responsible leaders do not run their countries on the basis of herd tribal mentality. Tribalism is an irrational tool for the comprehensive management of human and other resources.

Tribalism is akin to a body of violent flood waters, which are difficult to channel into a reasonable and safe course. Tribalism is a dangerous weapon that can cut for oneself and against oneself. SPLM/A leader, operatives, and members should know this. If they did not know it, they ought to know it now. National politics are issues of utmost delicacy that need to be handled with utmost political care. National politics are not akin to working up a tribal mob of volunteers in preparation for an armed attacked against a universal tribal enemy.

Critical and logical analyses of the comprehensive emotions of South Sudanese indicate that, for perfectly logical reasons, these emotions are raw, due to decades of politics of hate, hurt, deprivation, marginalisation, and isolation. This being the case, prudent leaders cannot expect to mobilise such raw emotions, into positive inputs, for constructing national development, through politics, akin to students’ politics. Such raw political emotions ought to be handled with utmost political objectivity.

Such raw political emotions need not to be exploited for tribal and party political ends, and at the same time, the exploiter expects to harvest a tranquil political environment. That is impossible. What does one expect after distorting political facts in order to win the sympathy of traumatised peoples like the South Sudanese? The most logical answer is that, there shall be a general unreasonable discontent for unfounded political and security reasons, manufactured for personal, tribal and partisan interests and not for the interests of the downtrodden peoples of South Sudan.

It can be strongly argued that, the myriad of unconventional and unconstitutional methodologies, used by the SPLM/A, since 2005 to date, for resolving constitutional misunderstandings are real sources of conflict in South Sudan. I must reiterate here that, SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, cannot just indulge in unconventional and unconstitutional methods, of running South Sudan, as if they were still in the bushes of South Sudan. These politically uncouth and culpable  conducts, by the SPLM/A, are comprehensively damaging the regional and international political and intellectual profile of South Sudanese.

At times, I develop this feeling that, the SPLM/A’s, conduct of national politics, is tactically and strategically, to impress and win the support of international sponsors. This  is a dangerous game that national leaders like the leaders of the SPLM/A ought not to be engaged in. While recognising the importance of international governments as species and actors of international law; I strongly believe that, rulers who run their countries, to please other foreign heads of states are not good leaders.

If leaders in South Sudan, including the SPLM/A leaders, want to run South Sudan, in order to gain respect internationally, at the expense of real national issues, then, it is sorry to say that, these are not the kind of leaders we really need in South Sudan. To rule South Sudan, in accordance with some foreign agenda is a permanent source for conflict. I cardinally believe that, our leaders must always put our interests in South Sudan first.  

For example, in 2007, in Juba, commenting about the CPA, the then President of the GoSS, and the current President of the RoSS, Lt. Gen. Mayardit said, “…it was designed to ensure an equitable and transparent distribution of wealth and resources. It was intended to create a level of ground for all Sudanese political forces so that they compete freely, in their multiple diversities, and so that the Sudanese people themselves democratically choose their leaders in free and fair elections. Above all, it has ensured for you the people of southern Sudan, the right to self-determination while urging us to create an environment for making unity of our country an attractive opinion…”

The above quote contains important issues to us South Sudan, in 2007, as well as now, in 2013, in an independent and sovereign South Sudan. On the issue of equitable and transparent distribution of wealth and resources, then, in 2007, and now in 2013, I am sorry to say that, the SPLM/A has abysmally failed the downtrodden peoples of South Sudan. Do the SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members; know the state and degree of relative and absolute inequality in South Sudan within the framework of all wealth and resources distribution?

I am going to pretend that, SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members knew then, and know now, the state and degree of inequality in South Sudan, in terms of power and wealth distribution respectively. So then, What steps were taken then, and are being taken right now, by SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, via the GoSS then, and the RoSS now, to realise equality, equity and transparency of distribution of the said wealth and resources? Do you, the heterogeneous peoples of South Sudan, recognise any semblance of equality, equity and transparency of distribution of the said wealth and resources?

In my case, I honestly and humbly believe that, there were no semblances of equality, equity and transparency of distribution of wealth and resources in South Sudan, in 2007, and I cannot see the same now in 2013, in South Sudan, under the military, political and administrative control of the SPLM/A. Way back in 2007, it was extremely painful to see our peoples suffering for want of beneficial goods and services. Some of us knew what was happening, but, SPLM/A iron grip of South Sudan could not allow the peoples of South Sudan to know the truth.

I mentioned somewhere that, the amounts of monies that were poured into South Sudan during the era of internal self-determination, 2005-2011, was more than the budgets of Uganda and Kenya combined during the same period. However, the politics of hate and revenge saw to it that, while the majority of States in South Sudan were groaning under the unrelenting poverty, other lucky and favoured States like Aweil, were lavishly supplied with all goods and services, over and above those supplied to the other parts of South Sudan? I would love to be educated about the logic of this wanton discrimination in wealth and resources distribution.

It is logical and reasonable to argue that, equality, equity and transparency of wealth and resources distribution is also applicable to all governmental institutions, as well as economic sectors in South Sudan. I have commented loudly since 2005, about the allocation of wealth and resources, to various institutions such as the army in South Sudan. Then, I asked the then GoSS, to make prudent decisions, not influenced by personal and group tribal and partisan interests. I argued then that, I did not understand why, the SPLA got 40% of total budget of South Sudan? Others claimed that, it was important to build a powerful army.

I argued then, and I continue to argue now that, how could you build a powerful army at the expense of the livelihood of the downtrodden peoples of South Sudan? Is the modernisation of the SPLA the top development priority of the GoSS then, and the RoSS now? How could this be, when millions of South Sudanese were, and are, dying from hunger and diseases? In fact, the majorities of our peoples are dying now, and died then, not from enemy bullets, but, from bullets of tribal hate and revenge. Our people died, and continue to die due to tribally motivated gross negligence, fueled by hate and revenge.

I argued then, and I argue now that, what are the guarantees that, these huge sums of monies, purportedly allocated for the SPLA, were, and are being managed, in the best interests of South Sudanese? If these monies were, and are being managed properly, why was, and why is, the SPLA, in such a ragtag condition? Where did, and where do these monies go? Why were there recurrent riots among the SPLA ranks and file, for want of salaries?

Why were some SPLA soldiers selling the chairs at the late Dr Garang mausoleum in Juba, to make ends meet? Who were, and who are benefiting from this unequal distribution of our wealth, and resources, in the name of the SPLA? If nobody can answer all these questions, we do want lectures from the SPLM/A.

The SPLM/A cannot lecture us on the importance of equality, equity and transparency of distribution of societal wealth and resources. They lack these moralities. How can they give us what they do not have? See you in (part 6).

The author is Professor of Social and Rural Development and Lecturer in Laws. He be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

South Sudan: A Tumultuous Mixture of Raw Human Hatreds (part 4)

By Wani Tombe Lako

Policies and politics of hate and revenge

June 22, 2013 (SSNA) -- In part (3) of these series of articles; it was argued that, the perennial absence of First Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit, from his office in Khartoum, as the then Vice President of the hitherto united Sudan, hurt South Sudanese interests. It also undermined his own political standing, nationally, regionally in Africa, and internationally. I am afraid that, he has not yet recovered from that. He was cocooned in Juba, for his personal interests and reasons, not to do with the comprehensive development of South Sudan. That attitude of indifference is still being demonstrated right now, by his administration, in Juba.

However, a political cynic may retort that, Lt. Gen. Mayardit could have run the government of national unity (GoNU), and the then government of South Sudan (GoSS), from Juba, no big deal. However, Juba was not the seat of the government of Sudan; it was the seat of the GoSS. All these issues have contributed to our current comprehensive ordeals in the RoSS. It was obvious that, we were starting, our governance of ourselves, by ourselves, on the wrong foot.

On the other hand, some more politically ruthless national and international commentators think that, we South Sudanese want to have our political cake and eat it at the same time. That is, we South Sudanese fought for many years for powers, and independence, and when we achieved them, we become overwhelmed with them. It now appears as if, we South Sudanese, under the failed leadership of the SPLM/A, are, politically, socially, culturally and morally, buckling and crumbling, under the combined weights of these powers and independence. We South Sudanese must do something quickly and urgently. 

Alternatively; many more ruthless commentators think that, the political shoes of powers and independence appear to be oversized for South Sudanese. Under the rudderless leadership of the SPLM/A, South Sudanese appear to want to continue, to blame others, for their own failures. This may be a subjective blanket characterisation of South Sudanese’s political and other capabilities. However, how can we logically convince these ruthless commentators otherwise, with the kind of visionless and hate, and revenge saturated, leadership, as contemporaneously demonstrated by the SPLM/A in Juba?

To return to the failures of the SPLM/A that the President was on about in 2007, it was, and it is now, obvious, to many political observers of the political landscape in South Sudan that, vengeful institutionalisation of tribalism and nepotism in South Sudan, has jointly undermined the confidence of many South Sudanese in the SPLM/A. Many South Sudanese and as well as foreigners, watch in horror, as the then GoSS, and extant RoSS, embarked on tribal manipulation of various political, judicial, security, economic, financial, legislative, socio-cultural, and administrative institutions along tribal lines.

Many South Sudanese are not happy in the manner in which the RoSS is being managed by the SPLM/A, under the direct supervision of Lt. Gen. Mayardit. Many South Sudanese are wondering, as to whether this is going to be their destiny in South Sudan, where institutionalisation of tribalism with impunity is going to be the cornerstone of the RoSS, for the foreseeable future? The institutionalisation of tribalism is a very dangerous failure on the side of the SPLM/A, and it is a dangerous violation of the Interim/Transitional Constitution of the RoSS. Therefore, the SPLM/A ought to know that, they are violating the human rights of the majority of South Sudanese by institutionalising tribalism and its paraphernalia in South Sudan.

I can strongly argue that, during the era of the internal self-determination, (200-2011), the SPLM/A violated the CPA; and the Interim/Transitional Constitution of South Sudan with impunity. Again, now, in the era of external self-determination, the SPLM/A is violating the Interim/Transitional Constitution of South Sudan with impunity. The leaders, operatives and members of the SPLM/A are ruling South Sudan through policies and politics of hate and revenge. When someone like me defends the peoples of South Sudan against these comprehensive violations of their human rights, by the SPLM/A, I am called a traitor.

For example, within the letter and spirit of the CPA, which was, and still is, the main sources of the Interim/Transitional Constitution of the Goss and the RoSS, the Power Sharing Protocol signed on 26th May 2004, says in subsection 1.6.2.13 Freedom From Discrimination that, “the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status”.

Well, it was, and it is, obvious that, the SPLM/A has grossly violated the above subsection. For instance, the phenomenon of permanent displacement of other South Sudanese, in Greater Equatoria by some more militarily equipped South Sudanese, without any concern from the RoSS, is against all human rights norms. These practices violate the right to possession and ownership of property, by the many South Sudanese, so forcefully displaced.

These practices also violate the right to individual self-determination as a human being, and this has detrimental effects on the integrities and dignities of these affected South Sudanese. There are also the violations of aggregate rights to shelter, as many South Sudanese so displaced, cannot use their lands for building human shelters. There are also the violations of aggregate rights to life.

These processes of forceful displacements render the so displaced South Sudanese vulnerable to starvations to death. They are unable to produce their food, nor to practice any life sustaining mode of production. These people are basically subsistence producers, dependent on the land so forcefully taken away from them. Such forceful displacements also threaten the sociological, cultural, and moral values of the people, whose land has been forcefully taken away from them.

The encroachment of other human persons; with different outlooks to life, and who then try to impose their alien norms, on these vulnerable people, is considered a matter of cultural genocide. These are serious human rights issues that the RoSS is ignoring to its peril. The people doing the displacement in Greater Equatoria are SPLM/A tribal militias, who also double as herdsmen, guarding and looking after the livestock of many senior SPLM/A politicians, leaders and commanders.

Further more, the vengeful allocation of counties to various states in South Sudan, on the basis of tribal strength, within the institutions of the extant RoSS, under the control of the SPLM/A is culpable. It is counterproductive to all semblances of equality, and equity in South Sudan. It is very obvious to every Bari man and woman for example that, their rights to participate in universal elections as means of choosing their leaders is very dangerously undermined, by these SPLM/A policies of distributing counties in the South Sudan.

Now then, how on earth can the Bari people for example, be equitably represented, in Parliament? All of them are lumped in just one single county, due to hateful and vengeful as well as a malicious strategy, to curtail and undermine their democratic rights. They cannot effectively participate, in the decision-making processes, in their own country? The SPLM/A know that, this is a very serious violation of the Interim/Transitional Constitution of South Sudan. However, they just do not bother, because, they are hateful and vengeful.

The extra judicial and illegal detention of South Sudanese for tribal, ethnic, and partisan reasons is a heinous violation of the human rights of those culpably detained. These practices are serious and dangerous violation of the Interim/Transitional Constitution of South Sudan. The SPLM/A and concomitantly, the RoSS are oblivious, and unconcerned, about the continuous detention of South Sudanese in Juba, and elsewhere in South Sudan, without proper legal procedures. SPLM/A officers and officials, continue to hold some South Sudanese in detention without valid reasons for such holdings.

For example, the then President of the GoSS, and the current President of the RoSS, in 2007, said that, “…the CPA…ushered in radical change in Sudan’s body politics in order to put an end once and for all to armed conflicts in our country and stifle potential sources of conflicts…”. It was, and it is still true that, the CPA ushered in radical changes in South Sudan’s body politics. The CPA gave birth to the sovereign RoSS and the breaking up of the hitherto united Sudan. However, when speaking of change, we should be aware that, there are both positive and negative changes.

Therefore, there are radical changes in the lives of South Sudanese. The fact that, the majority of us, in South Sudan, voted for the establishment of the RoSS ought to be considered as a positive development. That is, the formalistic legal, and constitutional secession of South Sudan, from the rest of the Sudan. However, critical analyses of this secession indicate that, we in fact, were almost independent from 2005, safe, for the absence of independent foreign policy, and a seat at the UN and such like.

Deep inside rural South Sudan, even in some urban and semi-urban centres in South Sudan, this territorial and associated legal and constitutional secession of South Sudan, from the rest of the Sudan means nothing. The ordinary peoples of South Sudan want to see tangible rewards, and benefits that come with this secession. They want to see that, they are safe in their villages, and in their urban centres. They want to see that they have enough food and such basic wants for life sustenance. The overwhelming majority of South Sudanese do not live in, nor do they experience, positive changes, as a result of the secession. They see the same people ruling them, with the same arrogance plus hateful and vengeful attitudes, imbued in political and security indifference.

The majority of South Sudanese are especially very confused, when they are told that, they are hungry because, political Khartoum refused them food, by closing down all borders crossing with South Sudan. They innocently ask, but, we are an independent country; why do we want political Khartoum to feed us? Some may even ask, as to what did our leaders do to protect us from these eventualities of secession from the rest of the Sudan? Unfortunately for our ordinary peoples in South Sudan, current SPLM/A rulers of South Sudan, do not know how to answer these questions, because, they never contemplated that, things were going to turn out like this. The SPLM/A rulers in Juba and elsewhere in South Sudan, want to have their political cake and eat it at the same time.

However, it is possible and practicable to carry out radical and comprehensive positive changes in a seceded South Sudan, if, we South Sudanese, have the will, and foresight to do so. We need positive developmental attitude. We need robust and dynamic, as well as all embracing and inclusive individual, group, and societal attitudes. However, right from 2005, up to date, in South Sudan, all that had happened are physical transformation of the landscape, with total exclusion of the human person.

Those SPLM/A rulers, who assumed the governance of South Sudan from 2005 to date, are dangerously imbued with dangerously static mindset, when it comes to issues of comprehensive social development of the peoples of South Sudan. Positive and radical social changes could not occur, in South Sudan, from 2005 to date, because, these SPLM/A rulers herein, are overwhelmed with policies and politics of hate and revenge. These SPLM/A rulers, in South Sudan, are predominantly imbued with deconstructive political intentions, as well as vacuous and hollow, unachievable, aspirational political slogans.

I strongly believe that, the spirit and the letter, as well as the literature and text of comprehensive radical and positive changes, contained in the CPA as well as in the Interim/Transitional Constitutions documents, as the political, legal, moral wombs; that delivered the RoSS, have not been comprehended by the leaders, operatives and members of the SPLM/A. These SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, lacked and still lack the capacities, capabilities, and the will, to translate the CPA as well as the Interim/Transitional Constitution, into beneficial and tangible goods and services on the ground, for the peoples of South Sudan. This is the true essence of external self-determination, as far as the peoples of South Sudan are concerned. 

Therefore, if the doctrine of extern self-determination cannot provide the peoples of South Sudan with the food, clean water, hospitals, security, protection, freedom of expression, freedom of movement, and some other freedoms and rights and privileges, then what good is this external self-determination? The meaning of external self-determination does not mean that, the peoples of South Sudan shall secede from the rest of the Sudan, in order to create the opportunities for these SPLM/A leaders, operatives, and members, to enjoy more exclusive powers and wealth, at the expense of the downtrodden peoples of South Sudan.

External self-determination does not mean that, the ordinary peoples of South Sudan are to enjoy the good life by proxy. That is, they enjoy life through the happiness of their rulers and their rulers’ children. This is not the right of external self-determination that the majority of our peoples voted for. That is why; many of them are beginning to wonder about the meaning of this external self-determination. Majority of South Sudanese are already disenchanted by this SPLM/A style of external self-determination.

Some SPLM/A apologists shall retort that, but, ‘Rome was not built in one day’. Fair enough, but Rome was built over centuries through positive human reason; and positive will to improve, and that is why, I am writing this piece. I am literally saying that, SPLM/A was not wired, and is not going to be rewired, with those human values and mores, which are necessary for the construction and reconstruction of functional human society. SPLM/A is a comprehensively destructive tool, sustained by hate and revenge. SPLM/A leaders have already declared that, ‘they cannot forget, and they cannot forgive…and those who disagree with them end up dead’. These are not the qualities of constructive human leaders, based on any minimum indices of civilised human values.

The radical change that is being peddled does not only mean legal and constitutional secession from the rest of the Sudan, under the supervision of the SPLM/A. It means more than that. It does not mean the offensive tribal monopoly of all political and administrative posts in the RoSS by the kith and kin of SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members only. The radical positive change ought to mean the participation of all sons and daughters of South Sudan in the process of governance. The radical positive change ought to mean the jettisoning of primordial and parochial politics of hate and revenge, to be replaced by politics of love and positive reciprocity.

Comprehensive positive change does not just occur because we have seceded from the rest of the Sudan, and then just celebrate this secession in expensive political rallies. Positive change must be believed in for it to occur. I lost hope of anything good, coming out from the conducts of the SPLM/A, as far as 2005, due to the fashion in which, they were managing the GoSS. I knew then, that, the leaders, operatives and members of the, SPLM/A were not working towards this positive change during the era of internal self-determination (2005-2011). I was also convinced that, the SPLM/A had no intention of achieving this positive change in a seceded South Sudan from 2011 to date; and I am being proven right now.

In fact, during the era of internal self-determination in South Sudan (2005-2011), the SPLM/A, implemented policies, which entrenched profound negative political changes, and which in turn, acted as concrete templates, for current comprehensive failures, in the management of sovereign South Sudan. I am afraid that, if this is allowed to continue beyond 2015, it will indeed set South Sudan back by more than a hundred years.

The SPLM/A is morally bankrupt to the extent that, it cannot lead us in South Sudan by any positive human example. For example, if, during the era of internal self-determination in South Sudan (2005-2011); SPLM/A operatives, broke down constitutional prisons, to criminally, and illegally, get out their convicted relatives, to enjoy, illegal freedoms. What kind of moral values do you think, the peoples of South Sudan can expect from the leadership of SPLM/A in a seceded South Sudan? Am I not justified, in questioning, the constitutional, legal, moral, religious, and socio-cultural abilities, of the SPLM/A, in governing an independent South Sudan?

Right from the word go, as far as 2005, the SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, perfected an aggressive attitude of not wanting to be cross examined, by the peoples of South Sudan, as regards their performances, in the governance of South Sudan. For example, one of their underdeveloped, classical intellectual tools was, always to retort that, they were starting from zero. Therefore, whenever the peoples of South Sudan complained about the lack of goods and services, even about the lack of security, the SPLM/A rulers retort that, they were starting from zero. How could they have started their security from zero, if, every one of them, was protected by armoured cars, including tanks, and platoons of armed to the teeth relatives?

On the issues of educational and other services, the SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, were politically and emotionally, anaesthetising the peoples of South Sudan that, the Jallabas in political Khartoum, were withholding their moneies, and thus, they were starting from zero. However, the foreign bank accounts of these SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members were bulging with the same monies, which were supposed, to be in Khartoum, detained by the Jallabas. Well, it did not last long, before the President of the RoSS himself, announced to the world that, the SPLM/A, did not start from zero after all; and he was pleading with his comrades, to return the looted billions of dollars, and such like, back home, to South Sudan, but via Kenya. This is the tragedy of sovereign South Sudan.

The late Dr Garang once said that, “…there can be a smoke in southern Sudan without fire…”. However, I maintain that, the peoples of South Sudan shall be the jury and the judges. The rumours about excessive embezzlement of public funds, by SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, were all over the world right from 2005. However, those of us non-SPLM/A South Sudanese were always categorised as black Jallabas, for just pointing out that, SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members, were embezzling the fortunes of the downtrodden peoples of South Sudan with impunity. From 2005 onwards, the political, moral and socio-cultural as well as tribal stages, for total underdevelopment of South Sudan, were set, by the SPLM/A leaders, operatives and members.

It was ubiquitously obvious to some of us that, the comprehensive environments, developed by the SPLM/A, in South Sudan, were not conducive whatsoever, for the establishment of an independent sovereign state, to be handed in a golden plate to the SPLM/A. It was not that, nor is it that, the peoples of South Sudan do not deserve their own country; it was, and it is, the fact that, the peoples of South Sudan were going to be cheated, and are being cheated; out of the fruits of this independent sovereign country. What is now happening in South Sudan is exactly the actualisation and operationalisation of those fears. See you in (Part 5).

The author is Professor of Social and Rural Development and Lecturer in Laws. He be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

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