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Tuesday, Aug 04th, 2015

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Compromise Peace Agreement is Fairer

By John Adoor Deng, Australia

July 27, 2015 (SSNA) -- The recently published document by IGAD Plus on South Sudan conflict resolution, call the Compromise Peace Agreement, is finding its home with many South Sudanese peace lovers. The document has explicitly defined, divided roles and powers at all level of the expected government of national unity. It has too; provided parameters that would guide the accountability and has in its mechanism to curb bad governance in the expected transitional government. For example, all decision-making in key institutions such as the presidency has been matrixed, and thus things like previous unsubstantiated non-consulted decrees shall as a result of this new matrix, ceased.

Secondly, the document had spent out a provision to observe transitional justice through the establishment of Hybrid Court for South Sudan (HCSS). This court, according to this agreement shall hear all cases of atrocities and human right abuses committed during the 19months in South Sudan conflicts. As an international monitored and funded court, it will act lawfully unlike other African courts where offenders go without being given penalties they deserve. Apparently, this court will be unique and forceful in all matters presented.

Thirdly, the most contentious issue (the two armies' narrative) has been well spent in the agreement. The agreement postulates that the assembling, screening, re-organization, disarmament and demobilization of all military forces must be done within 30 days counting from the day, this agreement will be signed. It is also stated that all capital cities will be demilitarized and that only 260 soldiers will guard the president, 195 soldiers with the First Vice President, and I guess couple of soldiers will be spin to vice president.

Fourthly, fairness has been awarded to the most affected states of the greater Upper Nile region. There shall be specific funds accorded to these states for development and reconstruction.  Although, we South Sudanese have killed ourselves virtually for nothing, we can still swallow our bitterness to one and another and embrace this peace. In my view, this is a good peace both for suffering masses and ruling elites. The United Nations, TRIOKA, European Union, China, and the IGAD countries have recorded their inputs into this agreement. We can call it a world gave peace to South Sudan. The sceptics have no points to convince us against this peace unless they wanted South Sudanese just to kill and finished themselves for no good reasons.

There are no reasons to resist the call for peace and tranquillity in South Sudan. We have suffered enough and worse in the recent conflict. We cannot afford to remain fighting an unwinnable war among ourselves. Millions of homes, schools, hospitals have been destroyed in unimaginable scales.  I, therefore, appeal to the negotiators on both sides to accept this peace unreservedly and the joyous of peace back to the Republic of South Sudan.

The Author, John Adoor Deng, is a member of South Sudanese Civil Society Organisation in Australia.  He is a periodical commentator on South Sudan issues, conflict, governance and reconstruction. He is reachable by email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pagan Amum is a South Sudanese Liability of the 21st Century!

By Peter Gai Manyuon

July 21, 2015 (SSNA) -- The newly reinstated Secretary General of Sudan People Liberation Movement (SPLM) Comrade Pagan is a born again in corruption malpractices. Corruption has routes in his blood even though South Sudanese complains day and night, nothing will manifest at all.  The latest investigative report indicated that, Pagan is having four (4) accounts in foreign Countries; two accounts in United States and two accounts in Swish Banks. If there is need for verification am very ready to expose his corruption for the betterment of my fellow South Sudanese masses. Am a human right defender, it is my right to talk on behave of the voiceless South Sudanese who are looking for social services like roads, hospitals and schools.

On 23 July 2013, South Sudan President Salva Kiir Mayardit issued a Presidential Decree suspending Amum and forming a committee led by James Wani Igga, to investigate Amum for alleged misconduct. Amum was accused of mismanagement of the party, financial irregularities and insubordination, including opposing Kiir's decision to suspend former Finance Minister Kosti Manibe and former Cabinet Minister Deng Alor on corruption charges.

All accounts are having money for the Nation that Comrade Pagan looted from South Sudan. All the four accounts are full of dollars that were supposed to be use for development of South Sudan as a Country. It’s well known by many audiences across the Country that Pagan is a South Sudanese who was brought from nowhere by late Dr. John Garang during the liberation struggle and now he is the parasite at this particular period of time. What a great disgrace?

The total amounts of dollars that got lost from the end of seventy five (75) corrupts individuals in South Sudan is equal to 4 billion United States of America dollars.

If you convert that amounts of dollars in to South Sudanese Pounds, it could reach to billions and billions of money. Practically can Pagan Amum be in the top Leadership of the country when he embezzled country resources for personal benefits? What a disgrace to President Kiir Leadership?

It’s well documented both internationally, regionally and locally that Comrade Pagan Amum, the current reinstated Sudan People Liberation Movement (SPLM) is a South Sudanese Liability of 21th century. It’s absolutely recorded that, he is a leading figure in the corruption cases among the South Sudanese politicians who happened to be listed.

Amum has been a Secretary General of SPLM as the party since 2005-2013. When he (Amum) was sacked due to corruption cases and misbehavior in the ruling party, he was lobbying for interim government while he is aware of his wrongdoers.

Since the crisis emerged in 2013 up to earlier 2015, Pagan Amum has been in forefront advocating for the removal of President Kiir and his entire cabinet where he described the current leadership as “worse government on earth”, government of thieves and he (Pagan) is among the thieves, moreover number one thief in the Country. Very Interesting!

He has been meeting different diplomats from United Kingdom, United States, European Union and Eastern Africa Countries advocating for him to be the alternative for the regime change in the Republic of South Sudan which he failed miserable.

Recently, Pagan when to Juba and got reinstated due to Arusha agreement that was signed between the former G10, SPLM in government and SPLM in opposition.  obviously, there was no option for Amum to survive politically since he failed to convene the International Community to lead the Interim government which he tried very much and he was denied the chance due to his records where he choose corruption as his mission and vision to move on with life in this 21th century.

Interestingly; according to the sources that were there during the liberation struggle, Secretary Amum never fired a bullet one day because the man is a coward naturally and Dr. John Garang realized his weakness and made him a small boy who use to carry mattresses and bags there after he was called a Garang boy of that time up to date.

Even thought what might be the case Pagan, will never get Presidency of South Sudan unless he re-turn the millions of dollars he had stolen from the people of South Sudan. God of South Sudan is watching at Pagan seriously and therefore he might not accomplish his wishes in politics.

His being in President Kiir government again will lead to disappearance of some millions of cash any time from now, because it’s an ideology within him to take money like that in the Country.

Historically, Amum was born in a greater Lou-Nuer area around Waat of Nyirol County of Jonglei state around January 1959. His family moved to Malakal after his grandfather, chief of the Ubuar people, died and Amum's father was asked to take over the role. His father went from being a clan chief to later being paramount chief and president of the court.

It was through a great man from Lou-Nuer who gave prophecy about the birth of Pagan Amum because the mother of Pagan took decades of years without getting conceived.

The late father of Pagan Amum Okech was a police man who was station in Waat by the government of Sudan by then. His being good to the Lou-Nuer community at that time lead to his blessing to have the current Pagan who is known as the only South Sudanese whose blood is full of stealing the resources of the land.

Surely, according to the well research findings since 2010 by International Community, Pagan Amum made use of his position as the Secretary General to take millions of dollars to foreign countries for his own investments and benefits.

It’s a very big insult to South Sudanese communities for Pagan to be reinstated as the Party Secretary General.

The Author is an Independent Journalist and Columnist who has written extensively on issues of Democratization and Human Rights in South Sudan.  Follow him on tweeter @ Peter G Manyuon.

Since war broke out in South Sudan in 2013, IGAD made several unsuccessful attempts to restore peace

Since war broke out in South Sudan in 2013, IGAD made several unsuccessful attempts to restore peace, this time around IGAD-Plus seem to hummer the odds; is peace really possible in South Sudan in August 2015?

By Lul Gatkuoth Gatluak

July 20, 2015 (SSNA) -- While writing this article, preparations are underway to reconvene peace talks between South Sudan warring parties. One’s purpose or specific intention to write this article, is to remind readers about the culture of negotiations, political compromises as well as the grave dangers laying ahead for the people of South Sudan if war continue to intensify. This time around, the sponsors of the upcoming peace talks had provided a serial sequential schedule that they termed as “the IGAD plus Peace Process Timetable”.

According to this sequential segmentation, IGAD Plus Envoys which is going to comprise with 19 members, will meet this week starting today on July 20 to 23, 2015 in order to acquaintance or served themselves with IGAD Plus Draft Peace Agreement proposal on South Sudan peace initiative. In their gathering, the team will approve the Draft or make any necessary changes pertaining peace proposal. Then, on July 24, 2015, the government of South Sudan and the SPLM/A-IO rebels will be called to converge in Addis Ababa to be served with the IGAD plus Draft Peace Agreement proposal. After a brief get together ceremony to mark the official start of the talks, the parties will be given 10 days to go over the draft and discuss it with their respective leaders in Pagak and Juba respectively. Hence, on August 5, 2015 the parties will be called back to Addis Ababa again to negotiate on the draft peace agreement proposals.  After both delegations reengage with mediators, two or three days later, they will be joined by their two Principals. The process of the negotiation is that, the two parties will negotiate to improve the text drafted by IGAD Plus and provide a better language which will be agreed by the two parties. If no agreement by the two parties, the language provided by IGAD Plus will be the one to remain and be signed.  On August 10 or so, the IGAD plus Summit will be called to witness the two parties’ signature to the Peace Agreement. Base on the above sequential timetable, one wonders, is peace really possible to be attained in South Sudan in August 2015?

Before one could dive deep to pin point some negative consequences, unwell defined peace could bring. It would be good to shade light on past negotiations. When the war broke out, envoys from Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, Somalia and Uganda converged in Juba trying to find ways to help tackled the new nation crisis. Theirs and the international community pressure came to life when on January 6, 2014, government and rebel delegations met in Addis Ababa to iron out their differences so that peace come back to South Sudan.

First, the two delegations met separately with mediators at a hotel to pin down the points they would negotiate. Second, both sides met with the Ethiopian’s foreign minister for a ceremony to mark the official start of the talks before actual negotiation started. The urgency of the talks was so sensitive, given that guns were booming and many innocent lives were being lost.

In that early stage of negotiations, two warring parties were asked to present their grievances,rebels had three agendas, which were (1) release of the detainees, (2) withdrawal of foreign forces, including Ugandan, Darfur and SPLM-North fighters which Salva Kiir has invited to crash down Riek Machar’s rebels and that, (3) Salva must step down given the fact that he has lost legitimacy for ordering his private militias to massacre Nuer in Juba. To rebels, resolving these issues would clear the way for further discussions. However, government delegation carried only one agenda, which is “let Riek Machar surrender unconditionally so that peace return”. Then, IGAD mediators had only two items on their agenda, these are the cessation of hostilities and the status of the detainees in Juba. South Sudan government rejected all three rebel demands.

After lengthy discussions, the ceasefire deal was signed on Thursday January 23, 2014 by Nhial Deng Nhial the head of the government delegation and Taban Deng Gai head of the rebel delegations under watchful eyes of IGAD mediators and International community observers. Immediately, such deal was dishonored. The second and other sessions which including the closed door face to face talks between President Salva Kiir and the rebels’ leader Dr. Riek Machar ended up in Addis Ababa with disagreements on nine issues, declaration of permanent ceasefire, release of report of the Enquiry committee on Human rights, wealth sharing, settlement of debts, permanent constitution making process, dissolution of the current Assembly, power sharing establishment of national executive council and national council of ministers. It looks like the culture of political compromises have not been employed by the parties.

In any negotiation, you don’t get 100%. For example, during the CPA negotiation, discussions were heated on power sharing protocol where SPLM/A’s delegations were serious on the rotation of the presidency and how the capital Khartoum should be divided in half one side could be used as the seat of the government of southern Sudan and the other side as the seat of the Sudan government. The two parties agreed only on general principles for the power sharing in government which include conducting an election during the interim period. They couldn’t agree on rotating the presidency and splitting the capital.

After the peace talks had broken down, the next round of talks were scheduled to take place and General Sumbieywo introduce a new format to accelerate the pace of negotiations by involving the top leadership to break deadlock issues. He drafts the compromise plan and gives it to the parties for observation as a basis for discussion at the upcoming opening session similar to what is now being proposed. At that time, the SPLM/A accepted his compromise plan and the government rejected it. The government delegation denounced Sumbeiywo’s plan as hopelessly flawed which favored only SPLM/A position on separation and very soft on unity. Omar Hassan al Bashir complained that unity hasn’t been given much room. The document was strong on secession which is the only concession they must offer toward the end of the interim period. He also could not allow self-determination for the south if southerners are demanding such demands as splitting the capital Khartoum during the interim period. After bitter unproductive discussions, negotiators made up their mind to set aside some of documents.

In mid-August 2003, talks resumed again in Nanyuki Kenya where the two side immediately deadlocked by the issue of whether to continue talks on Nakuru’s document or a new document could be proposed as the basis of the negotiation. In order to break the deadlock, foreign minister of Kenya Kalonzo Musyoka suggest face to face discussions between top leaders of the parties to the negotiation; something Taha and Garang agreed to do. His suggestion was seconded by western observers; they thought that direct negotiation between Ali Osman Mohamed Taha and Dr. John Garang De-Mabior might accelerate the search for lasting peace in Sudan. The two leaders were locked up in direct negotiation at the tourist resort town of Naivasha, in central Kenya. At that juncture, there was no passing the torch to anyone else any more. The two leaders were facing each other on critical issues working on making progress or admit failures.

Profoundly, comprehensive Peace Agreement was entirely a complex document dealing with security arrangement, wealth sharing, and power sharing with modalities that included the Machakos protocol and the resolution of the conflict in three marginalized areas. Yet, the well-defined CPA tackled important differences between South and North.

In our current situation, one would assert without doubt that, South Sudanese have been sharply divided due to the bad leadership, systematic human rights abuses, war crimes, genocide and crime against humanity committed by the top leadership of the country. If South Sudan going to survive as a strong Federal democratic State, several needs should be addressed, which will include democratic constitution, flexible federal system of governance, and a democratically elected Transitional National Government based on secret ballet of one man/woman vote. Failure of creating viable Federal democratic State, the danger we are now longing to erase will resurface before the end of the tunnel.

Any political stumbling blocks in South Sudan that could occur during or after interim period, could produce more dangerous serious consequences which will yet affect civil population greatly. Without well-defined democratic political guarantees, there could be another outbreak of war between the tyranny regime in Juba and SPLA rebels. We all know the war in south Sudan has been described since its early inception as an ethnic tribal war, which involves ethno-centric hatred that led to target of one ethnic group. Failure to identify the main causes of the conflict as being gross of the lack of a permanent democratic constitution to guarantee safeguards for all citizens, lack of the good governance and the rule of law, and the persistent denial of access for minority of the South Sudanese tribes to the political and economic mainstream by one ethnic group, which had created nepotism as a mean to enrich themselves will result into another ugly political event in the country; which mean people of South Sudan will slip backward. In that regard, we shall not accept any settlement that falls short from creating “Federal Democratic Republic of South Sudan” that facilitate the creation of the rule of law, and provide equal socio-economic and educational development for all citizens. Exclusion of any group could trigger a bloody war. It is obvious that, there are still unhealed wounds in the hearts of many people who have lost loved ones in Juba massacre.

Literally, South Sudanese are divided, and the division between them is started from the top leadership through power struggle, political and ideological differences, and tribal loyalty and its primordial identifications. In that regard, South Sudanese nationalism is expressed in terms of tribe affiliation rather than as a unifying force to enhance the creation of the one national interest. There is lack of equitable power sharing, resources sharing, and the denial of some minority tribes to be included in political and economic beneficiary of the country. This indicate that retaining an undemocratic leader, criminal who ordered the massacre of innocent civilians who has nothing to do with the power struggle in the SPLM party, someone whose crime against humanity is suited for International Criminal Court indictment to continue ruling with iron fist is uglier than you could imagine.

However, in the culture of negotiations, unwanted resolutions are accepted in order to avoid further destruction. This assertion is solo for the sought of resolving the conflict constructively. It is noticeable that rebuilding trust under Salva Kiir is impossible, but, we need to move beyond the limit of impossibilities in order to settle this would be 20 months or two years old conflict. We also expect the murderous igniter of Juba massacre and his cronies, to concede to all reforms our movement had put forth such as the idea of Federalism, adding of 11 more States to the current 10 and amalgamation of the South Sudanese army just to name only a few. We expect him this time around to avoid some of his everyday vocabularies such as, “ I refuse, redline, if I die, his intransigence, how would you feel if I signed an agreement for two armies in the country? ; would you be happy?” and so forth. Failure to incorporate Federal Constitution that has basic laws to protect all citizens, granted human rights, and social equality for all, freedom of expression, press, assembly and other democratic values could undermine the legitimacy of the peace.

In summing, worldwide, agreements are signed and if these agreements aren’t well-defined and suited with the causes of the conflicts, dissipating, fragmentation, and dishonoring of the agreements is always nearer. In that regard, mediators are expected to be serious on efforts of democratization and address each group’s political grievance amicably. We need to keep in mind that South Sudan has been divided by tribal, political, and ideological differences; if there is any failure on the part of the IGAD-Plus in providing necessary needed change in the country in any agreement they wanted to impose on South Sudanese, the possibility of peace to be derailed away is far greater than we might have anticipated.

The author is a political commentator: he should be reach at either  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it   This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

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