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The unique type of ruling that led to genocide in South Sudan

By James Tot Mathiang

September 11, 2015 (SSNA) -- What are the root causes of Civil-War in South Sudan?  And who is actually the ruler in South Sudan?  South Sudan the newest country in the world has a unique type of ruling/government that could barely be found elsewhere in the world.

In the past, there were more significant types of ruling in all European History. There were bad systems and good systems. A good number of examples of such government systems in Europe are: Absolute Monarchy of France, Anarchy of Spain, the communism of the Soviet Union, Theocracy of Rome, Oligarchy of Russian Federation in 1991, and Dictatorship in Germany. Nevertheless, all of these types of governments were supposedly ran by men and women of great intelligence and ability to rule and guided by a set of laws, but not influenced by insignificant individuals. While in South Sudan, Salva Kiir as a president find himself overridden by his tribal men and women who seemingly appear to be more educated and more intelligent than the president himself.

If you are among the millions who are wonder why the newest country on earth is in turmoil, this writer will ease some of your curiosity by highlighting the root causes of this civil war. The reason why South Sudan is in disarray today is because South Sudan is uniquely governed by unsubstantiated and unwritten laws. In every government system, the terms of ruling tend to mean how the leadership and government structure is chosen, or obtain power and how much complete power the government has over structure, economics, states and localities of the country. Yet, in theory South Sudan is not rule by the constitutions written in the book, but rather it is governed by individuals whose goal is not to develop the country, but to destroy the whole country and its people.

Salva Kiir of South Sudan, in simple term is not the ruler of the country, but he is symbolically present as a president. Likewise, South Sudan is technically ruled by the ruthless, power- greed and uncivilized group called “the Jieng or Dinka Council of elders”. The Dinka council of elders as they called themselves is consists of Shepherds, and high school dropout individuals who called themselves lawyers. The group has created uncivilized policies that led to this anarchy the country is in today.

Some of the policies the Dinka Council of Elders has created are:

  • First, the power of the government is placed in the hand of a single body, that is the Dinka Council of Elders. Every member of the Dinka council of elders  has been given an absolute power to endorse or reject any decision made by South Sudan parliament or the president himself. The power of the government of South Sudan is split into many sections of Dinka lead by the following:  Malong Awan of Northern Bahr El Ghazal, Salva Mathok of Warrap, Awet Akot of Lake State, and  Kuol Manyang Juk of Jonglei.
  • Second, the Dinka Council of Elders has created a policy that silenced or imprisoned the government critics. The Dinka Council of Elders has recruited and trained unsophisticated individuals from the villages to oversee the security of the country. To make the matter worse, this group of security does not speak the ordinary languages that the South Sudanese people speak. These security agents speak only their own dialect or Dinka language. For instance, if you are accused of criticizing the president or the Dinka Council of Elders your chance of surviving is limited because these security agents cannot negotiate with you given the language barrier. The group is instructed to kidnap and kill anyone who criticizes President Salva Kiir or the Dinka Council of Elders.
  • Third, the Jieng or Dinka council of Elders has instructed the president that the whole budget intends for the country must be put in the accounts outside South Sudan, because they naively think that they would run away with the money if the country fall apart.  Each member of the Dinka council of Elders has bought three or more houses outside South Sudan, especially East African countries, South Africa, Canada, United States of America, Europe and Australia.
  • Fourth, each individual from the Dinka Council of Elders has hired foreign traders from East Africa to run their businesses in South Sudan. That means all the businesses are theoretically run by Jieng Council of Elders. Every contract in South Sudan, whether it is a government or non-government contract, is overseen by either a member of the Salva Kiir family or a member of the Dinka Council of Elders. For instance, in 2012 Mary Ayan the First Lady, has ordered one of her relatives from Alberta, Canada to go to South Sudan and run a business there. Mary Ayan the wife of Salva Kiir Mayerdiit, has given two million US Dollars to her relative to buy foods for military personnel who were deployed along Sudan and South Sudan border, especially those in Northern Bahr el Ghazal and Unity State.
  • Fifth, Since the Jieng/Dinka Council of Elders is seen as a political entity who determines governmental decisions through the will of Dinka community, the Council is the one appoint and dismiss ministers,  law enforcements, supreme courts in all 10 states, military officers, ambassadors, and also the important posts in civil services. All the non-Dinka working with the government of South Sudan are nominated and endorsed by the Dinka Council of Elders. The very weak and least popular in their own community are appointed by the Jieng/Dinka Council of Elders because he/she will do exactly what the Jieng Council of Elders wanted him/her to do.

With all the above facts about Jieng/Dinka Council of Elders, there was no doubt that there would by genocide in the country. Therefore, this writer predicted the Civil War and genocide in South Sudan. Please see read this article below:

April 30, 2013 (SSNA) -- Since the South Sudan signed the comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) with the government of Sudan, it has had a very interesting history, marked by many years of patronage and partisan politics, imbued with nepotism, massive corruption and economic mismanagement, at the expense of public service politics. The political corruption and favourism associated with political appointments, manifested through  nepotism and appointment of associates on the unmerited basis in South Sudan, have badly affected the economic development as well as transformational changes in the new nation. Those who had been lucky to be allies with the ruling elites and political leadership are the ones who are often rewarded, disregarding merit-based system. In so doing the leadership failed to unite the grassroots based on principle of inclusivity and sense of nationalism. Therefore, this article is intended to discuss the negative features of patronage politics, tribalism, lost of National Identity and diminishing of Nuer values and power in South Sudan.

Firstly, it may be argued that patronage politics are an observable fact present in every political system, whether developed, or developing countries. In fact in the South Sudan political system, some oppositions give their full support to patronage as a tolerable occurrence at the highest levels of government, where the heads of the ruling Party, especially the president is entitled to select his cabinet and the heads of departments (usually based on who he knows or who is close to him). However, evidence shows that patronage politics in South Sudan are dangerously destroying the country, because it has been practiced even at the county level, as well as in the military. The situation in South Sudan is equally true, patronage politics have continued to affect every part of government functionaries, that is leading to unpleasant insufficiency in service delivery (health care, education e.t.c..), and increase corruption. Some officials hire their office staff base on blood relationship or through their close friend's recommendation. Therefore, most heads of departments or even some ministers in South Sudan government are holding those posts not based on their academic experience or qualifications, but because of their loyalty to the highest ranked people including the president himself. However, this nation has been entangled in its own bewildered web of favourism politics, and intense corruption, which have adversely affected the poor and makes poverty mitigation far away from actuality. The education and health care systems in South Sudan have been left lame ducked, because all the families of  the South Sudan elites live in neighboring countries and the western world. So, the poor and ill managed  schools and hospitals across the country are left for the poor. As a result of nepotism and patronage policies, the most qualified South Sudanese, including PhD holders, Engineers, Medical doctors, and their families are facing an unpredictable future in the country.

Lost of National Identity

Secondly, does the national identity matter anymore in the Republic of South Sudan? Believe it or not, some South Sudanese people have lost it all. The promotion of tribal identity in the new country is one of the most important causes of misunderstanding among politicians, as well as among the grassroots. The pressed issues I have observed among South Sudanese are greed and power struggles between tribes. Therefore, even the well educated South Sudanese, sometimes forget to mention the Republic of South Sudan, when they are asked where they from. Instead, they would say something like I am from “Dinka” or “Nuer” or “Shilluk,”and so forth. However, the question is what is ahead of us from now on? Well, the thinkers would argue that South Sudan is one inch away from slipping into Deep Ocean. That means that the tribal war in South Sudan is an inevitable, since the tribal wrestlings and bribery have moved to the forefront in South Sudan politics.

Tribalism in South Sudan

Thirdly, what causes the political struggles within the SPLM Party? The ill advice that the president receives in the daily basis does not only belittle the president, but it will lead the country to “chaotic evil”, which no one wanted to see.  The laws and order, and good deeds in South Sudan are disdained, as the presidential advisors are promoting chaos and evil. These people hope to bring themselves to positions of power, glory and prestige in a system ruled by individual quirk, and their own fancy. The presidential advisors without fear of destruction are now adopting what so called “Chaotic Evil Code”.

1. You shall lie whenever convenient.
2. You shall harm the innocent whenever convenient.
3. You shall kill for pleasure.
4. You shall not aid the weak.
5. You shall not honor any other before yourself.
6. You shall break the law whenever convenient.
7. You shall betray friends, family, community, and nation whenever convenient.
8. You shall harm those who protect the weak or honor laws.
9. You shall pursue all forms of pleasure.
10. You shall seek unlimited power over others and unlimited freedom for yourself.

These people seem to forget that the art of speaking is a valuable character trait of a leader. A good leader is one who is able to express himself and inspire others through his/her verbal expression, but not through bribery or political intimidation. Nevertheless, materials need is another important factor, that cannot be underestimated. As the scarcity of resources, and food shortage continued to rise in the new nation, the patronage politics and nepotism are elevated in a scary fashion. For example, the elites from the president’s side are increasingly defying the law, and violate all norms of political civility of the country. The latest instance is the political intimidations including the assassinations and bribery tactics.. The presidential decree has become a driving force intended to relieve officials, including the military officers who are not loyal to the president. This strategy is the most dangerous tactic that could create unnecessary genocide in South Sudan. Why the political inspiration to run for the top job in the democratic government has been politicized and seen as a threat to the country and to the president? The tribal hegemony is the only explanation of such a question. One wonders what kind of law, these future candidates violate? None. These people who show their interest in the presidency did not violate any law, as the meaning of a “democratic country” is concerned, but the tribal domination is an obstacle for the development of Southern Sudan. As a result of this tribal hegemony and ideology, the country’s wealth has been concentrated in the hands of a few.

Diminishing of Nuer Power in South Sudan

Fourth, why the Nuer power is fading? Well, there are many reasons why the Nuer power and values are diminishing. Since the signing of the CPA, the Nuer people have been victims of “divide and rule strategy”. This strategy is intended to break the Nuer “Mighty” into smaller, more manageable pieces, and then take control of those small pieces one by one. In order to maintain power, and influence, the Nuer adversaries will often work to keep the Nuer politicians and intellectuals from uniting. Back then, Nuer were so organized and powerful society in Sudan. According to encyclopedia of world cultures supplemented in 2002, the Nuer became part of the Sudan politics in the 1820s, when the nation-state was taking shape, beginning with the Ottoman invasion of Egypt in 1821. Like the other South Sudanese groups, the Nuer tribe has resisted incorporation into the Sudanese political structure. This resistance has led to the development of two distinct parts of the country: the north and the south”. In addition, Nuer people were egalitarian society in Sudan, and they were known for their bravery and unselfishness. Despite all these positive traits the Nuer people had in the past, Nuer at the present day are become followers and selfish. Prior to 1983, Nuer was the one leading the rebellions, but because of their low self-esteem, they gave up all the power, but not only that they end up killing their fellow Nuer who objected the idea of surrender. In 1991, Nuer were the one who came up with the idea of “Self-Determinations” which led to South Sudan independent and yet the history of the SPLM has been hijacked from them in the broad daylight. The economic meltdown or higher inflation rate in South Sudan, has forced weak hearted Nuer to increasingly become submissive to the Dinka elites, and become aggressive to their fellow Nuer. However, the bad news is that even some of the high ranked Nuer in the South Sudanese army (SPLA.), are living in fear of being dismissed from the army and so they too become submissive”.

So, for the world to save this country from further disintegrations there should be: First, creation of the merit-based system in every sector of the public service if effective public service delivery is to be achieved. This would mean strengthening the civil service agency to distance its operations from due political influence. Second, the country should focus more on systems and institutions, building process, to eradicate, patronage, bribery and nepotism. Third, there should be legislation that guide individual behaviors toward other tribes. Individuals from a particular tribe should be expected to follow the rules and norms established which hypothetically should create a region that morally blameless and free from tribal violences. Fourth, there must be term limits for the presidency, so that others would have a chance to lead the country. Last, the patronage and nepotism must be made illegal, so that the well qualified individuals would get opportunity to service the people. With all these in place, our country would be well-off, in the whole continent.

The author is a South Sudanese Canadian, who is advocating for peace in South Sudan. He can be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

South Sudan’s Basketball Star, Luol Deng, is an opportunist!

By: J. Nguen

September 7, 2015 (SSNA) -- There is nothing wrong for worshiping your one’s tribe ideals while respecting other tribesmen and women’s rights to life. In my viewpoint, tribes are nations but abused and disparaged by imperial rulers that ruled Africa.

Thus, I departed with this idea that South Sudan’s habitants are bunch of tribes and not nations. For that reason I will not envy those who think their tribe is a nation so long they respect the existences and the rights of others to life and freedom of expression and movements.

History has taught us that nations of European were once tribes and were emancipated of this tribe basis and became nations. There are now nations among other nations of the world. Their nationhood stands firm and fortified as of others. I wondered who is out there to tell us that we are just bunch of tribes and not nations.

On this basis, we should cease thinking diminutive and not that pathetic enough not to see the logic behind this writing.

Tribes are good things but tribalists blinded by bigotry and who do not respect other tribesmen and women right to life are bad and expose. Thus the intent of this piece and I decided to ostracize elusive figures who think they can hide from scrutiny.

Recently, I came to term that Luol Deng, the only South Sudanese Basketball star alive is a heartless tribalist and opportunist at best.

Evidently, Luol Deng does not heed other tribesmen and women right to life and existence. This is showcased by his exhibited behaviors toward South Sudanese civil population for the last twenty -one months since the civil war in the country started.

For the last 21 months, Luol Deng acted bizarrely when he visited South Sudan capital Juba. To be precise, Luol Deng never condemned the atrocities committed by the Dinka led Government in South Sudan. He did not even sympathize with those in UNIMISS camps and in harsh conditions. I am here talking about the displaced persons under UN’s care because they have no homes and they also fear for their lives if returned to burned home steads.

The last time I heard of Mr. Deng’s mission after visiting the suffering country was him building a basketball Court for his uncle, Manut Bol. Mr. Bol is another late Dinka basketballer, who once played for Chicago Bull. Mr. Manut comes from Luol Deng’s home region of Bhar El Ghazal.

While Luol Deng was building Manut’s court with hundreds of thousands of dollars if not millions, hundreds of thousands of internally displaced children, women and elderly South Sudanese were starving to death in the UNMISS Camps across the country. 

Mr. Deng chose to build a court over dying children because the man seems not to care presumably the starving children, women and elders were not from Luol Deng’s region and tribe of Dinka nation.

This is a character of amoral being. As mentioned above Luol Deng never openly condemned the Dinka led Government sanctioned massacre of 20, 000 Nuer innocent civilians. The only logic perhaps, anyone would think of is the perpetrators were Luol Deng’s uncles from the Bhar El Ghazal region blindfolded by Luol Deng’s own father, Aldo Ajou Deng. Mr. Aldo Ajou Deng is one of the ring leaders who founded the Jieng Council of Elders.

Luol Deng’s tight lip is not a surprise but founded on this basis. Instead for Luol Deng to condemn the human rights abuses, crimes against humanity and mass execution, Luol Deng has talked about unity of the youths South Sudan without acknowledging what brought disunity in the first place.

Luol Deng didn’t acknowledge the victims and who has wronged them. Luol Deng’s position of unity among South Sudanese youths was /is not random but perfected to divert people’s attentions.

In the normal world, it’s logical that outcry of disunity must be with purpose and why people need to unite in the first place? Luol Deng has avoided answering these logical and relevant questions.

I got it and I perfectly believed that the world also got it as well. It’s Luol Deng’s father ongoing business. Luol Deng once says, “I am a Dinka from South Sudan.” It’s true that Luol Deng is a Dinka and his home region of Bhar El Ghazal is not affected by this current civil war. But more importantly, it’s true that those who committed the atrocities, the main perpetrators of the Nuer massacre were Mr. Luol Deng’s father, Aldo Ajou Deng’s followers.

So, why care I guess in Mr. Luol Deng’s viewpoint when dad is the designer of South Sudan’s time bomb.  The de factor is Luol Deng’s own father Aldo Ajou Deng. Aldo Ajou Deng is a leading star of notorious Dinka Council of Elders organization and whose aim is to mobilize Dinka tribal young men against other tribes’ innocent civilians.

JCE came out in many instances opposing peace in South Sudan and things stands the group is accused of manipulating President Kiir tribally taking incorrect decisions particularly on how to run South Sudan state of affairs.

It appeared Deng is following the steps of his father. In Mr. Deng many interviews, he appeared to praise his father as a man super intellect but the opposite is true. Luol Deng’s dad does not possess characters of an African elder. Most African elders are regarded wise but Deng’s many like him are the worse exception, which in my view is son like a father bloodline.

Ironically, Luol Deng has been very aggressive promoting fake unity of South Sudanese Youths in the Diaspora after seeing the fact that the Dinka Council of Elders tactic isn’t working at the international stage. The world hasn’t bought their cheap propaganda of tribal politic of elevating one tribe status above others.

Luol Deng is now using his basketball starship to rebuild his dad’s tarnished reputation because Luol Deng himself is ashamed. Deng’s basketball’s status allowed him to meet President Barack Obama of USA. Luol Deng himself alleged that Mr. President asked for his advice on South Sudan’s state of affairs.

South Sudanese were dumbfounded this unbelievable turn of event. Not that Luol Deng cannot meet President Barack but the fact that Luol could offer piece of advice to a first world president yet Luol Deng’s father was the man who drummed up and executed the massacre of 20, 00 Nuer innocent civilians in Juba is pathetic to say the least.

What Can Luol Deng advises President Barack for yet the blood of innocent South Sudanese children is smeared all over Luol family tree. As a matter of fact, I took this opportunity to remind President Barack and the rest of the world leaders not to dine with Luol Deng. Luol Deng is a tribalist and opportunist at best.

Many South Sudanese youths, both at home and in Diaspora know that Luol Deng cannot be trusted for he does not have humanitarian heart. This is proven when he built a basketball court for Manut Bol instead of helping starving children, women and elder in UNMISS based Camps across South Sudan.

J. Nguen is a South Sudanese concerned citizen living in Canada. He can be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Kiir’s anguished!

Dr. Peter Kopling

September 4, 2015 (SSNA) -- The few days leading to the signing of the South Sudanese peace compromise deal, was very revealing to the keen observers. President Kiir went through significant agony, which is a manifestation that something of great proportions, grave and uttermost importance to him was at risk. Never before have had we publicly noticed Kiir in such an Agony and dilemma.

Kiir try to cope with this dilemma by at first sending a letter of what amounts to rejections of the peace deal, when IGAD plus did not back down but rather stepped up their pressures, the Jieng council of elders landed him their hands by putting out their own press release outlining how dangerous the particular path to peace was.

The next maneuver by Kiir was to go through his political mentor Mr. Museveni in Entebbe where they sought to derail the Blue print by IGAD, this too failed to trick IGAD plus.

Then Kiir threw the ultimate Tantrum and refused to show up at the IGAD plus set date, August 17th 2015. By some press report, until Museveni called Kiir, which he must show up in 3 hours, Kiir ended up showing up at the 11th hours.

To most of us we thought there were no more cards left in Kiir’s hand to play against the peace deal and we were wrong! Kiir sought to delay or avoid the signing of the peace deal all together and refused to sign it instead return to Juba Empty handed without delivering peace to his people timely as planned.

The Agony then revealed itself, Kiir declared, “We have reservations”. Because of these reservations, Kiir would rather not end the blood bath for that is the direct implications of refusing to sign the peace deal. To Kiir and his cohorts, because of these reservations; let death continue to reign on South Sudanese. Mind you being the president, Kiir is the Chief of those who even rebelled against him one way or another. It seems if he had the abilities to kill off all his people who did not agree with him and rebelled against him he would do it rather than compromise!  He would rather have death continue to claim the lives of fellow citizens from both sides than sign the peace, simply because he has a reservations.

Mr. President, I have news for you, if you didn’t have reservations, then it would not be a compromise peace deal! 

You have a hell of tough time to, not because the peace deal was horrendous, you had hard time because for the last 10 years you never compromised, the interest that only mattered to you is that of Jieng and let the rest rot. Yours was the first and the last word, you have never learned to comprise. Like a true Dictator your color came through and you agony more over areas of the compromise peace deal that strip your powers than over the death of thousands of your fellow Citizens whose lives hangs in your hands!

You literarily have the power to give life and to take life we saw it the last 21 months. For 21 months you have not agonized over the loss of lives of fellow South Sudanese but over powers, you do! The truth is out; actually the most power hungry person in South Sudan is you! You strip 8 out of 10 elected governors off their Citizen given powers, you fire and appoint at will.

It was you who triggered the war by lying about a none existent coup and releasing your Illegal Militia on fellow Citizens in Juba and it is fitting you should be the one to end the bloodshed. You started it and you alone can end it.

You said, “The Peace deal is a reward for rebellions.” Well Mr. President, Look how much some of us have reservations against you but had to shallow it.

We know you lied about the Coup, so we have a lying president. We know all the deaths that resulted from this war is on you because you were the author of the war by killing democracy and lying about an imaginary coup which lead to thousands of loss of lives, thus the blood is on you. We know on top of this, you committed targeted genocide against your own people. We know because of you, there are more orphans in South Sudan and the number illiterates increased.

So this is the view of majority of South Sudanese, minus most Jiengs, about you. This being the case Mr. President, By IGAD plus, putting out a road map, keeping you as the President of this nation, the very one you let down and lead into bloodshed, We indeed too have some serious reservations about this peace deal and this peace deal is rewarding, a Liar, one who committed genocide and an ethnic cleanser, a tyrant and a corrupt inept leader!

We think your place is not at the presidency in Juba but at ICC, but never the less IGAD Plus have rewarded you for killing your fellow Citizens. Those of us who think this way had to swallow our bitterness for the sake of stopping loss of lives and must compromise.

Mr. President, it is a compromise peace deal, it is not a victory peace deal, but more important, it is lifesaving peace deal, which gives us the opportunity to learn to compromise and solve our issues through words not through deaths.

I wish to see you anguish more about loss of lives than loss of powers. You have revealed that what matters most to you is power, all your reservations has to do with reductions of  “this power that belong to you and they want to take it away, would you let them?”

The next 18 Months Mr. President, put your country’s interest first, not that of Jiengs and its Council of elders that have failed you and South Sudanese miserably, if you so do, you shall have a second chance to redeeming your legacy. For it would be said of you: you deliver your people a country and you also deliver them from utter destructions and gave them rights to life and liberty.

Dr Peter Kopling Josep, MD, lives in the Republic of South Sudan. He can be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

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