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What is politics in South Sudan Context?

By Peter Gai Manyuon

August 13, 2014 (SSNA) -- Is politics preaching about tribalism? Is politics taking Country resources? Is politics killing people in ethnicity line?  Is politics raping women and girls? Or what is the politics that is going on in South Sudan under the leadership of Gen Salva Kiir Mayardit?

Logically, what I have visualized in the Republic of South Sudan is that, most of the politicians joined politics when they have not known the principles of politics. Well any one can defined the term “politics” in different way. To my own understanding politics meaning; is the practice and theory of influencing other people on a global, civic or individual level. Do Mayardit and his tyrants understand politics in intellectual way? Very bad situation, I think God should close the gabs now before South Sudan collapse!!

More narrowly, Politics it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance organized control over a human community, particularly a state. Furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community a hierarchically organized population as well as the interrelationship(s) between communities.

Absolutely, a variety of methods are employed in politics, which include promoting one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments, companies and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level. But for the case of South Sudan, politics is not practice in good way and eighty percent (80%) of the people don’t know what a politics is all about in South Sudan context. Very disappointing scenario and complex issue that need to be observe very well.

I don’t know whether it is because most of the people who are in the system are not well educated or not? Something needs to be study by researchers for further consumption in South Sudan.

Moreover, coming to the politics of inciting other groups to kills other community like what happened in Juba last year 2013 and what also happened in Maban County indicates that, President Kiir administration or whatever the call you might describe Mayardit government, lost legitimacy in governance, and influencing the people of South Sudan. The only best term to describe Mayardit government it can be call “Consumers Government” on earth.

Each and every one knows that, at first there was killing based on the ethnicity beginning from December 15th, 16th and 17th 2013 up to March 2014 in the Republic of South Sudan where by Nuer were massacred, tortured and other got rapes especially the women.  I don’t know what is behind the killings of the six (6) aids workers that were assassinated in Maban County again?  When the current crisis is now the regime within the regime fighting.

I think one might have read how the six (6) gentlemen were slaughtered like goats in Maban County of Uppernile State by the government Militias.  Very irritating situation that only need God attention to dismantle who is doing wrong to civilian’s population.

Hence, since the current crisis is the regime within the regime fighting; therefore both parties MUST know that, civil populations is far away from the current man made catastrophe that have taken thousands and thousands of people for shortest period of time in both sides.

Sometimes, I also urged that, most of the South Sudanese who claims calling themselves politicians and moreover they are not. I always says, people don’t know politics at all, what is in people minds is the ideology of Corruptions, Tribalism, nepotism, raping children girls under age and parochialism where some people minds are low or narrow minded and more interestingly their psychological black boards lack intellectual dynamism. Very contagious situation!!!

Well, illiteracy is the major problem that had caused the current civil war in South Sudan. Most of the people, who work in the civil servants, are all semi-illiterate. Most of the Generals who instructed the massacred of the civilians in Juba are illiterate. Most of them range from class four (4), five (5) and eight (8) as per the Education is concern. How would you expect someone who has not study well to lead the Nation or direct people in one way or the other? I only see this in South Sudan, in the whole world no illiterate President or semi-illiterate who is leading intellectuals. Most of the people who studied well, they know the value of human lives and observing democratization processes.

However, since April 2014 up to now, the problem became the general issue whereby both warring rivals are mixed up.

The current crisis had reached to another level of dimension where civil populations should not be targeted in the Republic of South Sudan.

Since January up to date, there had been many defections from the government side to the Rebels side and most of the people who defected are from all tribes of South Sudan. When you see the rebellion side, all the sixty four tribes (64) are there as well in the Government, there are different groups in the system fighting among them, no need to target the civilians.

Key Recommendations;

  • In the Republic of South Sudan Transitional Constitution, there is need to regulates some of the demands in order for the President, Vice President and the entire cabinets to be elects , appoints base on the qualifications of an individual. At least someone with Bachelor Degree and above should come up because senior four (4) qualifications/ primary eight(8) is what have destroyed the newest State up to zero level. Once someone holds a Degree and above, he/she is very mature enough in term of thinking intellectually, coming up with programs that might benefits the entire Nation and the world.

The Author is an Independent Journalist and Columnist who has written extensively on the issues of Democratization and Human Rights in South Sudan; you can contact him on This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or His book on Tribalism and corruption has already been sent to publishers for publication and will be put on sale soon. Be ready to get a copy soon!!

Undermining person contributions is Ironical!!!

By Peter Gai Manyuon

August 11, 2014 (SSNA) -- Well, after reading the article of Mr. Kuir Garang titled “Riek Machar and the Issue of Self-determination for South Sudan “I was veryamused and  smiled as well for my fellow country man trying to confuse the people of South Sudan with what he think was the right history about the Self-determination. And to me I can say Kuir Garang digressed from the main point he was trying to communicate to the target audiences.

Absolutely, if you read what Mr. Kuir Garang wrote where I quote him saying Self-determination was first proposed by South Sudanese participants of Juba conference in 1947. Anyone who pretends to be the one, who initiated it, if he or she wasn’t present during that conference, is just abusing history”. Very interesting quote of the year 2014!

Well, in some points, I might say 50% he was right and 50 % he was not right at all.

When you read Mr. Kuir article and you try to internalize it and contextualized it properly, you find that the gentleman is offside from what he was trying to tell his readers.

What do I mean? The ideology of self-determination and federalism were proposals by the South Sudanese who were by then Parliamentarians in Khartoum where Hon. Both Diu was the Secretary General of the Liberal Party by then.  I will agree with that, even I wrote almost two articles about that; for example, the most recent article where I say ”Hon. Both Diu Legacy Hijack” and what I was trying to mean when you revise is that, the person who came up with the idea should be the first in the recognition when people are talking of Federalism or federation in South Sudan.

As well not forgetting the only man who stood vigorously advocating for Self-determination and federalism beginning from 1997 Khartoum Peace agreement between Dr Machar and the current regime under the Leadership of Bashier. I can refer Mr. Kuir Garang to read that, agreement and get the facts; even as well the agreement that was signed between Dr John Garang and Dr Machar in 2002 has got the demand for self determination and Federalism.


On April 10, 1996 the government of Sudan signed a Political Charterwith Dr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon and Kerubino Kuanyin Bol as representatives of the SSIM/A. Riek Machar had been an SPLA field commander in Upper Nile in 1991 when he, Dr. Lam Akol, and others attempted an internal SPLA coup; when that failed they formed their own rebel faction which came to be known as the South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A).

At the time of the 1991 split, Kerubino was still in an SPLA jail. He and others, including his deputy Faustino Atem Gualdit, were detained in 1987 on suspicion that they were plotting a coup against Garang, among other things. Kerubino, who escaped with Faustino and Arok Thon Arok from an SPLA bush jail in late 1992, claimed he did not learn of the Riek coup attempt until his escape.

There after came the Political Charter provided for a referendum to determine the political aspirations of the people of southern Sudan. A Southern States Coordinating Council was to be formed for the interim government of the southern states, which were the ten southern states formed from the former provinces of Bahr El Ghazal, Equatoria, and Upper Nile, as boundaries stood at independence in 1956. These ten states were, in contrast to the sixteen northern, eastern, and western states, little more than garrison towns in a sea of rebel-held territory.

On April 21, 1997, the parties to the Political Charter and others signed a Peace Agreement with the government of Sudan to adopt Self-determination, which was a demand from Dr Machar which my brother Garang missed read what (Riek) does for the people of South Sudan.

The SPLA did not participate in these negotiations nor did it sign the Political Charter or the Peace Agreement rather. Truth must be said here my dear Country men and ladies. This is the right time to tell the facts, realities not lies.

Furthermore, just one week later, Kerubino demanded that the post of vice president of the SSCC be given to a Dinka. He accused Riek of a Nuer domination of the council, and refused to place his forces under Riek’s command. Shortly after this demand Kerubino, his deputy Faustino Atem Gualdit, Arok Thon Arok, and Nikanora Achiek were reinstated in the Sudanese Army by presidential decree, a measure to help them regain confidence in the government. All were Dinka, and received higher ranks than they had when they defected from the Sudan army in 1983. Kerubino was given the rank of major general and Arok the rank of brigadier.

Under Sudan’s federal system, members of state parliaments were to elect the governors (walis) of each state from a list of three nominees selected by the President of Sudan. The governor of Khartoum was elected in June 1997 and elections for governor in fifteen northern states took place in late August 1997, after the state governors were summoned to Khartoum in early August and informed that they would be dismissed pending elections to replace them.

The governorships in the South were to be decided upon differently, pursuant to the Peace Agreement, which provided for the president of the SSCC to recommend his cabinet including the governors to the Sudan president for appointment. According to the U.S. spokesperson for Riek’s political group, the United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF), a disagreement arose between Riek and Kerubino over the governors. Kerubino wanted to adhere to the Peace Agreement and have Riek (in consultation) name a governor for each state then send the governors to President Bashir for appointment. Riek wanted to deviate from this part of the Peace Agreement and select three candidates for governor for each state. These names would be sent to Bashir for approval, and the state assemblies would then vote for governorin the northern states. 

Small highlights

The Liberal Party, at first called the Southern Party and later the Southern Liberal Party, was formed in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan before the Sudan became independent in January 1956. Until the military coup of November 1958 the Liberals were one of the main parties representing the Southern Sudan constituencies in parliament.

The Southern Sudanese Political Movement was founded in 1951 by Stanislaus Paysama, Abdel Rahman Sule and Both Diu. In 1952 it changed its name to the Southern Party. As of 1953 the party leaders were Benjamin Lwoki, Chairman, Stanslaus Paysama, Vice Chairman, Both Diu, Secretary General and Abdel Rahman Sule, Patron of the party. The objectives were to work for complete independence of Sudan, with special treatment for the South. The party was officially registered in 1953. At first it had widespread support from the southern intelligentsia and from the bulk of the people in the south of Sudan.

In the November 1953 national elections, most candidates in the South ran on the Southern Party platform, some were independent and five ran on the National Unionist Party (NUP) platform. Nine candidates were elected for the Southern Party, supported by three independent candidates. Most of the newly elected southern MPs traveled on the same boat to Khartoum, and agreed to come together under one banner. This was only a loose alliance, with constant disputes about leadership and policy.

Thereafter, the party adopted the name of "Liberal Party" in 1954. The new name was meant to remove fears that the party stood for southern secession. However, the northerners continued to call it the "Southern Liberal Party". Later the party adopted the name of "Southern Liberal Party". The party convened a meeting in Juba in October 1954 where the injustices of the Public Service Commission were discussed at length. The attendees resolved unanimously that the best solution for the south was Federation, and called on southerners to prepare for sacrifices in meeting this goal.

Justification of the facts

Now coming to who should be appreciates about the Self-determination and Federalism.

Dr Riek Machar and Dr Lam Akol Ajawin deserve appreciations, they re-advocate for the self-determination and Federalism up to date. Did Dr John Garang advocate for it? The answer is big no, did General Kiir advocate for it? The answer is still big no. Then who will you appreciates Mr. Kuir Garang if you don’t appreciate Machar?

Can we say since the initiators are not there people should not continue advocating for it?

According to my own projection on this topic, is that without Dr Riek Machar and Dr Akol who took the initiative of reviving the idea about the two like Federalism and Self-determination we cannot talk of the Independence of the Republic of South Sudan that was declared on the 9th of July 2011 fact MUST be said here my dear Country men and ladies.

Each and every one globally know that, Dr John Garang was a man who was advocating for the United Sudan, because he was yarning for the top sit which at the end he (Garang) got the second highest sit in 2005 and eventually die in Helicopter Crash which is doubtable up to now in the minds and hearts of some South Sudanese who can projects issues intellectually.

Mr. Kuir, you talk of Khartoum agreement in 1997 I can assures you that, it was this very agreement that was signed as the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) on the 9th of January 2005 in Naivasha Kenya. If you read the document or if you don’t have I can send for you the document which contains Self-determination and Federalism signed by Dr Machar and Khartoum in 1997. It is very important for any writer to have any records in hand, talking without justification, sometimes is an insult.

This is the right time to appreciate what the person does in the history. Saying self-determination is not for Dr Riek Machar is not right and absolute my dear brother in the name of Jesus Christ God of Universe.

“We the Intellectuals who have read history should write informative and comprehensive observations”

I always like reading articles of Mr. Kuir but this very article where he is misleading the nation I must debate with him up to the end of the world.

The Author is Chief Editor of Nyamilepedia and Columnist who has written extensively on the issues of Democratization and Human Rights in South Sudan.  He is a Professional Journalist who holds Bachelor Degree in Mass Communications and Journalism from St. Lawrence University in Uganda, Postgraduate Diploma in Public Relations and Media and currently concluding his Masters Degree in International Relations and Diplomatic Studies. He can be contact on This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Proposed interim government is a Trojan horse operation!

By: Daniel Abushery Daniel

"If civilization is to survive, we must cultivate the science of human relationship, the ability of all peoples, of all kinds, to live together, in the same world at peace."Said by: former US president Franklin D. Roosevelt.

August 10, 2014 (SSNA) -- I am unwilling to see this country that we inherited from our forefathers fails in its obligation to itself and our fallen mytres, heroes, heroines, and to the other free and liberated peoples of southern Sudan. Though, we should leave no initiative untried in our pursuit of peace, and no stone should be left unturned to resolve the conflict that inflicted in our new nation and spreads like a wild fire. I don’t agree with the notion that our nation must resign itself to inevitable decline, yielding its proud position to other hands.

Not in our watch!

We must be a clear voice in our resolve and quest for peaceful act wherever it may occur. Negotiation with regime must never become an appeasement. Despite the brutality of Salvatore Kiir Kueth-piny and his thugs to help our entire civilians living in UNMISS camps all over ten States of South, those who are wondering in the bushes,  and in neighboring countries. We must vividly be free from elites’ regime in Juba and their alliances, led by Ugandan troops, and four groups of fanatic Sudan rebels who don't value the life of human beings.

 And there will be no more abandonment of our people's, and friends; whatsoever the cause, especially the peace loving people's; we must carry on the task of world partnership that this country never sought, but has been thrust upon, the bold effort not simply to protect freedom of our vulnerable people's, but to advance it to the needy population whereever they are, keeping our promise of liberation of every corner in South Sudan.  

Let's remember that; there's no silver bullet when it comes to problems solving!

Nevertheless, we will foster the infrastructure of democracy, the system of free press, unions, political parties, and civil society, and rule of law's, which will allow people to choose their own destiny. We must forged the beginning of a fundamentally new direction in South Sudan foreign policy, let the two warring parties deliberate on how the idea of freedom could be reigned and spread love, unity and tranquility among our people's of South Sudan, and how to dissident group behind the Iron curtain, and the new initiative could be launched unconditionally.  

Therefore, in our quest for peaceful coexistence between different community in our beloved country,  it would be better to save lives than to avenge them. The questions that posed themselves here are: are we not capable of demonstrating our peaceful intentions by applying all our abilities? Why we don’t embark on political programs to counter Kiir regime.

The curtail points that may help in resolving the current crisis in South Sudan:

A interim government must be set up to prepare the country for permanent government that composed of technocrats and some few neutral nationalists, and I am personally concerned about the overseeing the writing of a well- articulated constitution, follow by free and transparent elections, including all parties in the country.

The ethnic cleansing of innocent civilians vanished on mid December, 2013 by the current government and its militia must be fully investigated, and the suspects must be thoroughly overhauled and handover to International Criminal Court "ICC" for the atrocities, and heinous crimes they committed against humanity.

Albert Einstein says it best; “We always hope for the easy fix to the problems, the one simple change that will erase it in a stroke. But few things in life work this way. Instead, success requires making a hundred small steps go right; one after the other, no slipups, no goofs, every pitching in."  Therefore, we cannot solve problems with the same level of thinking that created them.

Please, don't put the cart before the horse.

This is my prospective!

The author of this piece is criminologist from Western International University (USA), and can be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

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