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Tribalism Ignites the Current and Previous Conflicts in South Sudan

By: Daniel Wuor Joak

April 16, 2014 (SSNA) -- Several nationals and foreign writers have been addressing this concern for a number of years and extensively made researches on it where they thoroughly figured out that “Tribalism” is the main obstacle to future peace and harmony to communities living in South Sudan. Both British colonial power and successive Sudanese regimes in Khartoum had voiced the same concern where they rightly predicted that South Sudanese people would not afford to rule themselves peacefully if granted a state of their own. The present situation can prove without any doubt to all of us as testimony. As South Sudanese who was born and grew up during the first Anya-Nya war and later participated intensively during the second war of struggle from January 1984, my experiences proved that something wrong is lingering in our minds that need to be readjusted in order for Republic of South Sudan to survive and be governed peacefully and transparently. Let us not pretend that everything is alright within our setups being on the government or in the opposition sides. Our society in general, unfortunately, is very much decay from top to bottom unless is drastically rescue from eminent demise through cooperation and understanding.

All the sixty-four tribes, which inhabited the Republic of South Sudan, are very peaceful and loving people but inherited only by wrong leaders who have been blindly followed by their subjects without questioning their integrities and commitments to their wellbeing. Education and exposures to other world civilizations has nothing in our applied knowledge. Some of our most learned South Sudanese leaders who are supposed to be the best exemplary behaves as if they had never gone to classrooms. They always incite their tribal groups once they run short of ideas to convince their political opponents at national level.

The December 15, 2013’s saga had nothing to do with either Nuer or Dinka for that matter. It was squarely an SPLM internal matter that would have been resolved by its members from within. The massacre and wanton killings perpetrated against over ten thousand Nuer civilians which was deliberately carried out by the so-called Presidential Guards and their colleagues from other organized forces from Dinka in Juba town for three days was an act of a defeated leader at national level. Those leaders who challenged President Salva Kiir Mayardit from SPLM Party including Dr. Riek Machar, Mamma Rebecca Nyandeng de Mabior, Deng Alor Kuol, John Luk Jok, Kosti Manibe, Alfred Ladu Gore, Dr. Cirino Eteng, Madut Biar Yel, Pagan Amum, Oyai Deng Ajak, Chol Tong Mayay, Taban Deng Gai, Dr. Peter Adwok Nyaba, Majak de’ Agot and Ezekiel Lol Gatkuoth etc. Those who know the South Sudanese names very well can easily identify how many Nuer are on the list. They are only four in number among the fourteen SPLM leaders who advocated for change of leadership. The higher figures from the group who opposed Kiir’s leadership were from Dinka. They had five and the rest were from different communities from Equatoria states. The Nuer community for that matter was victims of political conspiracy intentionally hatched by President Salva Kiir Mayardit to eliminate them from South Sudan’s politics. The fabricated coup attempt, which was later, publicized by President Salva Kiir himself and his errand boys all over the world against his former Vice President Dr. Riek Machar, was a ploy to distort and detract the attentions of South Sudanese and their well wishers worldwide who were terribly shocked and saddened with great disbelieves about the awful massacres of the Nuer community which were systematically carried out by government supporters in Juba, Malakal, Bor, Leer and Bentiu. With this kind of systematic killings against the Nuer, the White Army and defected SPLA soldiers from Nuer in Juba, Bor, Bentiu and Malakal fought back against the government loyalists until they bravely overran the towns of Bor, Bentiu and Malakal as well as most of the counties in the three states of Upper Nile, Unity and Jonglei respectively and this was the beginning of the rebellion in the South Sudan.

President Salva Kiir had in the past been mastering the same tricks against different communities throughout the country where he fomented tribal feuds amongst the Dinka themselves, Nuer v Murle, Murle v SPLA, Nuer v SPLA, Mundari v Bari, Achol v Madi, Acholi v Bari, Dinka v Fertit, Shilluk v Dinka, SPLA v SPLA etc. Such feuds were more less land disputes or indiscriminate disarmaments where he always favoured one group against another biasedly. It resulted to numerous rebellion movements.

With the current conflict, some selfish politicians who do not want their individual interests to be jeopardized have dragged in some communities into this war unnecessarily. For example, the Dinka Ngok of Baliet in Upper Nile State were not at all part of this wrangling but they were rather dragged in by none others than the State Governor of Upper Nile Simon Kun Puoch and his County Commissioner of Baliet Rev. James Tor Monybony. Before the fighting took place in Malakal town on the 3rd week of December 2013, a group of state lawmakers, state ministers, other organized forces officers and senior state officials from the counties of Ulang and Nasir, after they completely disagreed with the state governor over the killings of Nuer civilians in Juba whereas the governor himself with on denial that the government in Juba did not order the massacres of Nuer civilians. They were rather killed by individual criminals as his unwavering support presently with the government in Juba confirmed. After the group decided to travel to Nasir area without official approval from the state governor, their convoy of twelve cars was intercepted at Baliet Count by a force being organized by Baliet County Commissioner under specific order from the state governor Simon Kun Puoch where he instructed him not to allow the convoy to proceed to the last destination as planned. Instead the group were told to return back to Malakal or else be dealt with accordingly. While the were in state of discussions, the organised soldiers from Baliet opened fire indiscriminately killing: 1. Hon. Nhial Lual Wuol, SPLM Chief Wipe Upper State Legislative Assembly, 2. Hon. Bang Duop Lam, Chairperson of Justice Committee, Hon. 3. Thuok Puok Goot, Secertary General State Secretariat, 4. One Colonel from Police, 5. Two Major from Police, 6. Two Captains from Police and several officials. The total of those killed that day of 20/12/2013, were 17 persons.

When the news of their killing reached Nasir and Ulang, the communities of these two counties were extremely alarmed and the White Army decided to go and search for the survivals in Baliet County. The number of passengers in the convoy was over sixty persons who were dispersed by their attackers to wilderness. Most of them died of thrust and hunger in the forest. Instead of the people of Baliet County to apologize for the killings, the While Army from Ulang and Nasir found them prepared for war against them. This was the root cause of the first fighting in Baliet County. It was Governor Simon Kun Puoch and Rev. James Tor Monybony who should be held responsible for the death of innocent Dinka civilians from Baliet County and Nuer of Ulang and Nasir Counties respectively. It was not their wishes to kill themselves but the war was rather imposed on them by these two greedy politicians. This is a known fact and nobody will ever deny that as long as evidences are concerned.

The same thing with the prevailing human tragic befallen in Shilluk Kingdom where former militias recently absorbed by government of South Sudan under commands of Major General Johnson Oluony and Brig. General Ayuok Ogat and under overall influence of their mentor Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin have been badly used by government in Juba to wage war against the SPLM/A-In Opposition forces in Upper Nile State. This exposes the Shilluk community into danger because most of their recruits hail from Shilluk tribe and the fighting is concentrating in Shilluk area whereas thousands of Shilluk have been displaced from their ancestral lands either to UNMISS camp in Malakal town or into neighbouring country of Sudan. The blame still goes to Dr. Lam Akol who encourages the Shilluk militias to fight alongside that despotic regime in Juba for his selfish gains. He had been in opposition all these years until when he learnt that his erstwhile political rivals Dr. Riek Machar and Pagan Amum went on loggerheads with President Salva Kiir Mayardit. He hastily came back from his self-exiled in Cairo and took this opportunity to mend his relations with President Kiir in order to side-line the other two SPLM opposing leaders in his favour. The Shilluk as community has no reason to fight the White Army or the SPLM/A – In Opposition for that matter because the two communities have a lot in common and very much integrated culturally through inter-marriages assimilations. Because of misuse of Shilluk sons being conscripted into militia’s rank and fight alongside the SPLA, Brig. Ayuok Ogat, one of the factional militia commanders decided to defect to the rebel ranks. His forces and that of SPM/A – In Opposition recently captured the town of Kaka El Tigariah from the government forces. This marked the beginning of Shilluk community to disassociate themselves from Salva Kiir and Lam Akol’s ban-wagon. Their marriage of convenience will soon disintegrate as already the Chollo community realises the truth.

The same scenario has also been happening in Mayom County in Unity State where the sons of Monytuil Ojang, Dr. Nguen who is the Unity State Governor and General Bapiny have been organizing a militia band under command of Major General Matthew Puol Jang. The militia who hails from Bul Nuer clan has been fighting alongside the government against the SPLM/A – In Opposition forces all this time without being integrated into SPLA ranks like Shilluk Militia. Sadly, they are not in payroll but miserably used to fight for the interests of their godfathers in Juba. Until the day of yesterday on 15 April, when the Bul militia fighting force realized that they have badly been misused by the sons of Monytuil Ojang in Juba by killing their own Nuer people and destroying their properties jointly with SPLA of Dinka elements, SPLM-N, JEM and UPDF forces against the SPLM/A-In Opposition in Unity State. Over 600 of them under command of Major General Karlo Kuol Ruai have defected to the rebel’s rank and this made the capture of Bentiu very quick and easy.

Once again, the same tools also used by some politicians from Dinka Bor in Jonglei State where they deliberately dragged in their community into war unnecessarily. For example, the people of Pegi, Duk and Twic East Counties who are all from Dinka origins had never been part of current war because the SPLM/A – In Opposition or the White Army always consider them neutral. They did not participated in the massacres of Nuer in Juba and other towns in Greater Upper Nile as this was done only by some Dinka elements from Greater Bahr El Gazal. Therefore, they were not attacked during the first and second capturing of Bor town by SPLM/A –In Opposition in December 2013, and January 2014, simultaneously.

Unfortunately, the people of Duk were encouraged by their politician Hon. Philip Thon Leek to form their own militia group and fight alongside the SPLA and UPDF forces in the area. Following the recent fighting between the government and rebels forces, Duk County became a contesting zone and that was the reason why some of the structures including the lost boys clinic was destroyed during the fighting. Hon. Philip Thon Leek should not escape from being blamed for having encouraged the Dinka youth in Duk County to fight alongside the government and their Uganda ally forces against the SPLM/A-In Opposition forces. The Counties of Pegi and Twic East are free from attack up to this time from the SPLM/A-In Opposition and the White Army because they have shown their neutrality openly.

Frankly speaking, the government of President Salva Kiir Mayaridit in Juba has completely lost it full supports and confident of the Nuer people throughout the Nuerland in Jonglei, Unity and Upper Nile States because of the wanton killing and awful massacres its committed against the innocents Nuer in Juba and other towns in Greater Upper Nile states. It is now resorting on supports of individual’s personalities like Major General James Hoth Mai, Dr. Riek Gai Kok, General Charles Lam Chol, General Yohannes Yoal Bath, Simon Kun Puoch, James Kok Ruai, John Kong Nyuon, Dr. John Gai Yoah, General Johnson Gony Billieu, Major General Bol Kong, Nyang Chuol Dhuor, Hon. Timothy Taban Juoch, Justice John Gatwech Lul, Hon. Manasah Magok Rundial, Dr. Joseph Nguen Monytuil, Kuong Danhier Gatluak, General Bapiny Monytuil ect. who have no grass-root supports and at the same time being labelled by Nuer in general as sell-outs who compromised the death of their own fellows for material gains and positions. Whether President Salva Kiir have them in his camp, the grass-roots Nuer considers them like those perished in Juba during the aftermath of fighting. Their contributions are not valued very much at this time. That is why some of them resort on sending people with money to bribe the Nuer White Army in Eastern Upper Nile and Eastern Jonglei States. If they want Nuer to support their cause, why they do not approach the ones residing at UNMISS camps in Juba, Bor and Malakal instead of looking for people who have already escaped the government’s onslaughts. Unfortunately, their cheap dealings are rejected completely throughout the Nuerland. Some of their agents went recently through Ethiopia carrying with them several hundreds thousands of US dollars to bribe the White Army and some field commanders associated with Dr. Riek Machar to return to the government circle. But this mission ended up in fiasco where many of them have been arrested in Gambella region by the Ethiopian security or sent back to Juba unceremoniously. This is always the work of failed leaders who are virtually disowned by their own communities. Whether they like it or not the South Sudan is in turmoil and there will be no reverse at all. Therefore President Salva Kiir and his cronies must go by all means sooner than later or otherwise, Moamar Gadhafi and Saddam Hussein’s sagas will fall on them squarely.

The author is a former MP & Minister of Education, Science & Technology (UNS) and now Executive Director of African Centre for Human Advocacy (ACHA), which advocates for human rights and good governance throughout the Africa Continent.

IGAD’s Inadequate Strategy in South Sudan

By Elhag Paul

April 13, 2014 (SSNA) -- In a recent article published in various websites titled, “Solutions to South Sudan political problems lies in new blood”, I hinted that IGAD seems to be ignorant of South Sudan’s political problems. More and more this appears to be the case. IGAD’s approach to solve the problems of South Sudan in the last few days reveals a shocking lack of a clear thought out strategy to address the problems of South Sudan. In fact IGAD does not have any credible strategy and what it is doing is a copy and paste job using the template of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the SPLM and the Sudan government of 2005. It should be noted here that the context of the CPA was different from the present situation in South Sudan and therefore it is inappropriate to extrapolate. Please see, “Former SPLM detainees excluded from South Sudan peace talks.”

This surely does not bode well for peace given the fact that the outcome of the comprehensive peace agreement has left a sour taste in the mouths of the various parties in both the Sudan and South Sudan. In the Sudan, the issues of Blue Nile state, South Kordufan state and Abyei remain largely unresolved with continuing immeasurable loss of lives. In South Sudan, the people of Panthou, Kafia Kingi and other disputed border areas are left confused with undefined status.

In both countries, the agreement entrenched vested interest at the expense of the people. The National Congress Party in the Sudan became stronger giving president Omar Bashir an extended lease of rule and the Sudan People Liberation Movement in South Sudan monopolised power.

Applying the CPA strategy in the current case of South Sudan suggests the people of South Sudan are yet again being sacrificed to appease the warring factions of the SPLM only. This means the men of violence are being rewarded and they will obviously once more be the only beneficiaries and not the people of South Sudan. This can not be right morally and in principle. What the IGAD leaders do not see is that they are directly encouraging South Sudanese law abiding citizens to take the route of violence to solve the problems of the country as this is the only method that is recognised, incentivised and can yield visible results.

The over 20,000 innocent lives lost in the ethnic cleansing, over 80,000 potential government targets in protection camps of UN within the country, over 250,000 South Sudanese who crossed the borders as refugees and the nearly a million internally displaced citizens created by president Kiir and the SPLM’s direct mismanagement of the country seem to mean nothing at all to IGAD. To them, it is the SPLM, the very culprit that matters and not its victims.   How sad and heart breaking to see an African body that is supposedly to improve the region stoop so low as to lend credence to racist views that Africans are savages because they do not value life and justice. Take for example, in Bosnia only the Serbs initially killed less than five hundred people and the Western powers rightly intervened to stop more loss of lives. In the case of South Sudan, President Kiir’s tribal militia killed over twenty thousand innocent lives (children, women, elderly, disabled and the sick in hospitals), yet IGAD as an African body which should value African lives is ignoring these mass killings in favour of reviving the monstrous SPLM.

One can not help but think that IGAD representing its member countries is more interested in short term stability of South Sudan to enable its member states to fortify their economies from the only engine that fuels growth in the region. It is not a secret that since 2005, the IGAD countries that border South Sudan have grown their economies astronomically because of South Sudan’s oil and open market. 

In South Sudan, Kenya controls the entire banking sector and also a large share of the market in essential processed commodities. Ethiopia controls the catering, hotels and hospitality industry. Uganda controls the transport industry, essential food industry including processed goods. The Sudan, the former colonial power is extorting billions of dollars as payment for transportation of the oil to Port Sudan for export. The amount of charges the Sudan levies on South Sudan is about 8 folds of the normal internationals charges per barrel. Somalis control the fuel and forex bureaux industries.   In the social field, all these countries almost equally share the sex industry which is worth millions of dollars annually.  In this massive booming trade, South Sudan gains nothing as most of the foreign companies barely pay any taxes to the authorities and yet its indigenous labour force remain unemployed with sexual transmitted diseases spreading like wild fire throughout the country. Technically, South Sudan is haemorrhaging money daily with no benefit to its people.

It is understandable that these countries would like to protect their economies and political stability but this should not be at the expense of the people of the very country that makes them prosper. South Sudan needs these countries as much as they need South Sudan. So, it does not matter who is in power in Juba. There will always be business due to interdependency in this region.

The prudent thing for IGAD to do is to work for a lasting solution so that the entire region develops and grows peacefully. For a lasting peace to happen IGAD needs to bin its current twin track plan which involves the CPA strategy and the rebuilding of the SPLM. The CPA strategy as shown above will only rejuvenate the monstrous SPLM to tighten its grip on power while painfully oppressing, pauperising and marginalising the people without ensuring a durable peace in South Sudan and the region. The second track according to H.E. Desalegn, the Ethiopian prime minister, is to resurrect the imploded SPLM. Desalgn says in Sudan Tribune of 8th April 2014, “I am convinced that once the SPLM party dispute is resolved, the national problems by and large will be resolved.”

This is lamentable. Rebuilding the SPLM as a solution shows how the IGAD is totally out of touch and ignorant of the realities of South Sudan. The SPLM is the real cancer eating up South Sudan. Reviving it is tantamount to reconstituting the menacing machine that greatly posed danger to South Sudan and the region pre 15th December 2013. Why does anybody want to revive a tribally based organisation that has plunged South Sudan and the entire region into turmoil? Does this make sense? Has IGAD not learnt a lesson yet from the current crisis? The present mess going on in the region right now is because of an SPLM that was united. An SPLM that we warned the world about. Please see, ‘To achieve peace in South Sudan SPLM/A must be scrapped’ and ‘South Sudan needs intensive care.’

Paradoxically though, the best thing that has happened to South Sudan is the implosion of the SPLM because it presents a unique opportunity for the political problems of South Sudan to be resolved once and for all. SPLM’s current fragmented form should be accepted and let its various factions on their own without IGAD’s tinkering find their own political niche in the country. Let those factions which can survive make it and let those which cannot survive perish. The law of nature should be allowed to take its own course on this issue of SPLM. After all it is already an organisation on the wane.

Which brings us to the question: what should the solution be? As argued elsewhere and unanimously welcomed by citizens, South Sudan needs an interim government and such a government should be realised by bringing all the stakeholders to Addis Ababa to democratically work out who should lead the country to prepare it for peaceful elections.

South Sudanese know their problems far better than those bureaucrats of IGAD and its leaders. This is an important point that IGAD must value and register. The prescription made by H.E. Desalegn to revive the SPLM as a solution to the problems of the country is not born out of sound knowledge and reality of South Sudan. It is a belief formulated out of hearsay and certainly it will not work nor bring peace as he claims. It is the worst thing any well meaning person can do and all South Sudanese know it. This would not be the first time that the SPLM would have been revived. It revived itself numerous times with support of the church during the liberation war in the Sudan and also prior to the signing of the CPA to no avail. It faltered and imploded yet again on 15th December 2013. The reason for SPLM’s constant troubles is simple. The foundation is wrong. The culture of the organisation is laced with tribalism, intolerance, violence, corruption and sexism. So, no matter how much IGAD tries to patch it with plasters, the wounds are gangrenous and will not heal. The only solution, as doctors do in such cases is to amputate. So why does IGAD want to patch a hopeless wound? 

While we say we know our problems, this does not mean we do not have blind spots for outsiders like IGAD to see and point out. Yes, we do and where our weakness is seen by others we appreciate it. The mediation by IGAD is supposed to point out our blind spots and not to prescribe previously tried ineffective approaches. With this said, we the people of South Sudan unanimously are saying again that we want an interim government and we do not want the current feuding groups because they are members of the same SPLM gangrenous organisation that brought us to where the country is now. It could not be said louder than this.

President Kiir‘s SPLM must not dictate the terms.  Its back is already broken. The reality is that if President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of Uganda did not come to his aid, his government by now would be history. Uganda now holds the balance of power in South Sudan and therefore it has the ability to decide the course of history in South Sudan. Since Uganda is a member of IGAD, the African Union and the Troika countries should pressurise it to lean on president Kiir to step down to allow an interim government to take over. If Uganda refuses then the pressure must be brought on her to withdraw her forces immediately from South Sudan to be replaced by an international impartial force and not the PDF (protection and deterrence force) recommended by IGAD for obvious reasons.   If President Kiir continues to refuse to step down from power, then the targeted sanctions issued by President Barack Obama of United States should be beefed up together with indictments of President Kiir’s entire cabinet for the crimes against humanity they are committing daily as we speak on the people of South Sudan. 

In light of the above, IGAD has a powerful bargain chip to force president Kiir’s hand to step down peacefully else he faces the wrath of the world. Given this scenario, there is no need for IGAD to pursue its twin track strategy, but rather it should concentrate on bringing all the stakeholders including the various factions of the SPLM on the table in Addis Ababa to discuss the issue of interim government in good faith. For this to be fruitful, all the stakeholders (publicly known parties and all known civil society groups) in the country and the Diaspora should be allowed to:

1) freely travel between Addis Ababa and Juba without hindrance
2)  speak freely without fear in order to contribute effectively to the process of peace making.
3) be appropriately funded and facilitated with accommodation by the IGAD

As recommended by the African Union in its latest communiqués on South Sudan, IGAD has a duty to facilitate the talks by funding the stakeholders adequately and using democratic principles to ensure the outcome is acceptable to the people of South Sudan.

To recap, the present twin track strategy of IGAD in operation is not suitable for South Sudan. That is why the talks in Addis Ababa is dragging on unnecessarily prolonging the suffering of the people of South Sudan, especially those in the United Nations protection camps internally and those in refugee camps abroad. Reviving the SPLM for business as usual is not a solution but regression. South Sudan cannot afford to be taken back to the oppressive rule of SPLM which has created the ethnic cleansing of the Nuer. Apparently, President Kiir and his SPLM have indicated their intent to target the Equatorians next starting with their leaders. This is an open secret in the country now. Therefore, reviving the SPLM is tantamount to giving it the permission to carry out this threat.   By this article I am making this point clear to the world and there should be no excuses when this does happen. What is needed now is for IGAD to ditch its preferred plan in favour of a realistic approach which is to move the talks straight to the theme of interim government. Here, it should use whatever experience it has in dealing with negotiations to facilitate the dialogue among all the South Sudanese stakeholders out of which the new leader ship shall emerge.

[Truth hurts but it is also liberating]

The author lives in the Republic of South Sudan. He can be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Federalism in South Sudan: Why Dinkocrats aren’t in approval!

By: Justin Ambago Ramba

April 12, 2014 (SSNA) -- Federalism is without doubt the best system of government for a multi-ethnic country like South Sudan. This isn't just an academic debate after all.  In fact the academic debate on the best system for our country has long passed this stage.

As I intend to keep this article simple and discernible,  I see no point in not stating the obvious and just conclude a long story by saying that our future as south Sudanese lie in a federal system of governance.

In fact it is the only option left on the table if our country is ever to experience any true stability.

But then if that is indeed the case, why then is federalism being extremely an issue of contention between the different ethno-political groups in the country?

It maybe be a good idea at this stage of the national dialogue to point out those who are indeed in favour of federalism as a system of governance.  And why? Of course we may also want to know something about those who continue to oppose it. And why?

Without having to waste your time unnecessarily on a long introduction, just hear this from me. It’s an open secret that a handful of South Sudanese communities have since long wanted to rise above the others. Not in a good way.

A clear example is how the Dinka communities of Warrap, Northern Bahr Ghazal and parts of the greater upper Nile region have forged a union to take up the same abusive roles played by the “Mudukurat” i.e. the Northern Sudanese Arabs during the bitter history that once connected the South and the North Sudan together.

What is currently unravelling in South Sudan, stands to prove that, it is not uncommon for victims of long standing abuse to turn around and become  abusers once the optimum conditions avails itself. If you ever doubted this, be reminded that it’s now happening in the nascent state of south Sudan.

Characteristically of this emerging trend non Dinka citizens in south Sudan are continuously being bombarded by all kinds of weird statements.

Any drunken Dinka can jump from nowhere and tell a non Dinka that, “we liberated you” or “we died for this country more than anyone else”. Of course this is not true. But does any oppressor really need a true story to justify his/her actions?

The Dinka have indiscriminately used all kinds of abusive statements to generally refer to themselves as the rightful owners of South Sudan to the exclusion of the sixty or so other ethnic groups.

They, the Dinka are unarguably the single largest ethnic group in South Sudan, quantitatively.  Qualitatively they are nowhere.  And this they know or should know!

So existing in a country with an ethnic perspective where members of one particular ethnic group would want to laud it on the others for the shear reasons of quantity and not quality, South Sudan without the least doubt has rightly become a laughing stock of Africa!!!

Dinkocrats want to be looked at as the sole liberators of South Sudan, when they have not yet even liberated themselves from very backward cultures of cattle rustling and child abductions!!

The 1947 Round Table Conference took place in Juba, Equatoria, and it was the first ever conference to recognise South Sudan as a unique entity compared to North Sudan.

Again the first uprising against the Northern  Sudanese Arab rule begun in Torit, and was fought under the Anya Nya liberation movement in Equatoria from 1955 to 1972.

And yet again the two decades of the SPLM/A led liberation war though begun in Bor Town, Jonglei state, it was at the end largely fought in Equatoria.

But with all this long history of liberation wars and decisive battles being fought in Equatoria and often so by the Equatorians, combatants and civilians, yet in the post-independence South Sudan, Equatoria is not yet Uhuru.

Where our country is now, it will not be an overstatement to   say that that an oppressive group is rapidly emerging from the rabbles of the five decades liberation war, to deny the other South Sudanese their rights to a better life.

A new monster has indeed evolved from what was naively expected   to lead to an egalitarian society.

Because it was left unchecked from the very beginning, the current SPLM/A, leadership has fast undone all that was collectively achieved as South Sudanese independence. Unfortunately for everyone,   independence is no more to be.

Maybe many never thought that any South Sudanese who suffered decades of marginalization under the successive abusive Northern Arab regimes would ever turn around, and become a tyrant, butcher and target killer, massacring his people left and right!

To prove this point, many people were already told that if they want to remain alive, they have tolerate the new masters (Dinkocrats) the same way the tolerated the Arabs! This is independent south Sudan for you.

Dinkocrats are now imitating Jallaba as the new rulers in the Republic of South Sudan. They have exchanged the SPLM core ideologies and replaced it with the expansionists, exclusionist, chauvinistic, self-enrichment philosophy, typical of the NIF/NCP.

The Dinkocrats are in every way copying the Jallaba in their quest to have the absolute power and wealth in South Sudan. These things are well demonstrated in the daily and the very   basics of how the country is governed. All you need is an eye and you will see it.

Is it not true that, it has been the Dinkocrats’ dream to dominate the top political and executive positions in South Sudan to the exclusion of other better qualified “Others”? Is it not their dream come true when they got a free hand to the nation’s wealth in exclusion of the “others”?

Maybe someone want to lecture us on how the Dinkocrats develop the brute tendency to bully others. Or why they have no shame in taking over other few citizens’ ancestral lands, infamously known as “land grabbing”?

In Juba, Wau, Bor , Rumbek , Yambio, Aweil,… etc., right from the day South Sudan gained self-rule, Dinkocrats have often resorted  to criminality and militarism, committing countless crimes with a presidentially approved impunity !!

But when we are told that South Sudan is a failed state, the Dinkocrats seem happy to share that with everyone else. Why do they want Dinkocracy’s failure to be synonymous with South Sudanese failure, when many brilliant non conformists and non Dinkocrats could have saved the country?

Almost on every occasion when Salva Kiir or his dinkocratic system fails, which unsurprisingly is often the case, Dinkocrats are wickedly happy to see it as south Sudan’s failure.

On the other hand it is indeed mind boggling how Dinkocrats see Salva Kiir as the only alternative in spite of all his shortcomings?

This complete state of mental darkness which can easily  be referred to as the total eclipse of the Dinkocrats mental faculties, have gone to set them against federalism in the country.

If I say that, he who is against federalism, is indeed against the very spirit of an independent south Sudan, it won’t be an exaggeration in any way. But there you will see a Dinkocrat in a full attire putting all obstacles in the way of a system which only a no brainer or an exploiter can choose to oppose.

But then why are the Dinkocrats now against federalism, when they in fact supported it during South Sudan’s long struggle? The answer lies in the missing $ 20 billion dollars!

In a centralised system, like what we now have, all you need is to scare off free press, bar free speech, and send your lynch men after every big mouth in town, and you and your followers can proceed to loot and grab at peace.

Hence in spite of all the benefits federalism is set to offer in the form of a future peaceful coexistence between the different ethnicities, Dinkocrats blinded by free money will die fighting against it.

Are these guys not mirroring the typical position of the Jallaba and their blood sucking National Islamic Front/ National Congress Party (NIF/NCP)?

The bottom line is that South Sudan is now at a very advanced stage in its journey to a destiny that is yet to be declared. However you will be a naïve if you expect a quick fix to the myriad of governance issues that must be set right before normalcy can be attained.

I say federalism lies in the very centre of any negotiated solution that South Sudanese may finally converge at. This is so if the country is to ever remain united and at peace with itself.

Nonetheless no one should expect the Dinkocrats to easily give in to a new dawn, federalism included. Should that become the case then the only short cut to peace and stability is more war and more instability.

At the end it is all about, how the sixty or so other ethnicities can come together and make or force the Dinkocrats into seeing the relevancy of federalism and cooperate with others to adopt what is rightly the best form of governance for our country.

In a nutshell, federalism must replace the current Dinkocracy for South Sudan to regain its position among nations.

Dr. Justin Ambago Ramba is a concerned citizen and a voice for the voiceless. He can be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

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