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Former SPLA Chief of General Staff, James Hoth Mai, not Welcome in Australia

By: Mr Gatjung Choap, Mr Gatluak Deng Gai, Mr Tito Tut Pal, Mr Mun Khat, Mr Changkuoth Deng, Mr Moses Abraham Gatluak, Mr Buom Chan, Mr Kueth Golong Kueth , Mr Gatluak Deng, Mr Chuol Puk, Chuol Deng Gai, Mr Gatluak Puok, and Mr Bill Jock

Re: Former Chief of General Staff, James Hoth Mai, was not received by South Sudanese and Nuer Community in Australia

June 12, 2014 (SSNA) -- We are writing in respond to allegations posted by Gordon Buay Malek, that James Hoth Mai was warmly received by Nuer Community and South Sudanese in Australia. This allegation is untrue and will never be true forever. Hoth’s arrival in Australia was viewed by many people as mocking of the victims whose family members he murdered in South Sudan. Buay, Hoth and their likes, have failed to realize that Australia is a signatory to Human Rights Convention and thus has an obligation to uphold and protects such rights from perpetrators and abusers.

In all accounts, it does not surprise us that Buay, as he always has been, would not be ashamed of describing Hoth and we quoted as "a battle-hardened commander and strong ally of President Salva Kiir". In fact, Hoth is a weak and coward general, who attempted to buy popularity outside his family, clan and tribal circle. He saw his nation being destroyed and torn apart in his watch by the man he praised and hailed high as his God and President, Salva Kiir.

The following evidences prove this claim:

First, concentrating rigidly on protecting his employment and status quo as Buay has been advising him to do so; Hoth gave up the lives of millions of South Sudanese for his own goods to affirm his loyalties to his rigid minded boss, Salva, who tribalised, clanised and sub-clanised the government in his watch; however, he never hesitated to question or warns Salva of such dangerous moves.

Second, tribal Militias from the clan of Warrap State-the birth place of the God of Hoth, were trained to pursue and fulfill the wishes of Salva and his destroyers; however, Hoth never implement any serious actions aiming to deter or prove his experience as a decorated general charged with protection of his citizens and constitution of the nation.

Third, military alliances aiming to destroying Mr Mai’s nation, tribe and clan were accorded by Salva and his murderous partner in crime, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda and Justice and Equality Movement of Darfur (JEM) in Mr Mai’s watch; however, he was mindful of only his ranks, employment and status quo. Hoth and Buay’s own birth place county-Ulang, was destroyed by the man and the regime that blindfolded them as a loyalists. Mr Mai’s immediate family members were killed by the same regime that he thought would continue to protect his employment and status quo and his parents were forced to escape to Egypt. Others left Juba for their own safety and could not return to Juba.

Hoth was used to murder his own fellow citizens, family, clan and tribe and was dumped later on after his God father Salva and his regime become aware that his fellow tribal men, children and women have been exterminated to extinction in the country and found him lonely on his highland of blood bath. Shame on Hoth for resorting to seeking asylum in Australia as a safe haven after he foolishly destroyed his own nation.

Buay has demonstrated to South Sudanese in all accounts that he is a mad man suffering from identity crisis and untreatable psychosis. He claims to be a die-heart supporter of the regime which saw his nation torn apart, destroyed his tribe and family members that shaped him to who he is today. Coward Mai and his accomplice Buay immediate family members, clan and tribal men are confined to UNIMISS camps like any other Nuer without loyalists to Salva’s regime.

Buay is the terrorist not us here in Ground Under. He is one of the secret service personnel who have immensely contributed to destruction of South Sudan today by inciting violent and crimes, masterminding the political disappearance of many innocents South Sudan and misleading Salva and his loyalists by providing him ill-advises aiming to destroy the nation in order to remain in power and continue to rule in fiat in the new nation. We have all the evidences of Buay’s communications with Salva, commandos in the frontlines and secret service personnel. We will provide this evidence to Canadian Authorities and the world.

It is with a grave concern to learn that Buay has been fully bribed by the desperate regime that rule the new nation with fiat and irons fist in Juba to shamelessly spend time on propaganda war. Regardless of Buay feeding the world with unfounded and deceptive information about us being militants in Australia, Hoth will never be harbored by an accredited nation like Australians, which is best known for taking human rights abuses seriously and apprehension of human rights abusers with blood of millions of innocents in his hands.

The world should also be aware that Hoth and the regime in Juba have got use to fabrications and deceptions that we all witnessed torn apart our nation today. Buay and the regime in Juba are still shamelessly preaching allegation of Coup D’état when South Sudanese and the world has already discredited their claims by ordering them to release the political prisons. Moreover, the former Head of South Sudan Military Intelligent Services, General Mac Paul Kuol, in his testimonies, publicly denied the current humiliations and massacre of the remained survivors and savage civil war in South Sudan as a Coup D’état attempt, but rather described as an incident between the Republic Guards. General Kuol’s version of event was confirmed by the second incident erupted again among Republic Guards three months later after the fabricated incident by Buay and Salva and their like minded partners in crime in Juba and in the region.

The deception that Nuer attended at the Australian airport to receive coward and weak, Hoth who brought them shame forever, is indeed unfounded information and senseless. Nuer did not and will never honour murderers; or celebrate the murdering and massacring of their family accept Hoth and Buay who have been disowned by the South Sudanese, their family members, tribe and clan for shamelessly capitalizing on their expenses and letting their blood spilt for their own gains and preservation of their status quos.

Referring us in Ground Under as militants because we sympathized with the victims of the atrocities and determined to protect human rights by informing Australian government of the crimes and atrocities committed by Hoth is a disgrace to humanity and complete denial to existence of human race.

We are not terrorists but we are more than prepared for any threat that appears to destroy the nation, tribes, clans and families that shape us to who are today. Unlike Buay and the regime in Juba with blood in their hands, we will never retire to fabricated allegations that destroy the social fabrics of the nation. Buay wrote and we quoted, "individuals like Gatluak Deng, Gatluak Puk, Chuol Puk, Chuol Deng Gai and Bill Jock travelled to rebel controlled areas few months back and delivered money to the rebels to carryout various crimes ranging from civilian killings to coldblooded murders of anybody suspected of rejecting their version of political events in South Sudan,". This mad man-Buay, would never produce any evidence if demanded to do so by the authority. We wish we travelled to South Sudan to rescue his family that he abandoned shamelessly when he travelled to Canada after his puppet Salva’s secret service hunted him and burned his hometowns Ulang.

Also, Buay alleged, "in Australian laws, any citizen or permanent resident of Australia who engages in promoting, aiding and abetting any form of violence or terrorism is subject to criminal prosecution. Therefore, the Australian government has an international obligation to observe UN Security Council Resolutions against such kind of acts being practiced by Nuer militants in Australia." If acquiring a citizenship status in a foreign country and suspected of taking part in a foreign conflict resulted in persecution, then, it is certain that Buay will be the first criminal who will be persecuted and tried in the Canadian Law Court since Canada is a signatory to human convention as Australia.

Buay and his regime in Juba have not yet had enough in spilling the blood of innocent South Sudanese. They have no guilt and shame to apologies to the nation so that unity and harmony can be restored. They continue to finance foreign forces that are desperate to securing financial support in return for burning human alive and destroying states.

This crisis in South Sudan will be over soon and these perpetrators would be brought to justice on-by-one. South Sudanese are now better informed of the fabrications and deceptions of these faceless groups and therefore the regime in Juba is displaying all signs of last kicking of a dying horse. This is evidenced by mass defection of South Sudanese from all works of lives-law-makers, arm forces, politicians, spiritual leaders, scholars and ordinary people.

In conclusion, we would like to inform the world and the South Sudanese in particular that our organisations are humanitarian based agencies determined to supporting the victims of conflict and vulnerable South Sudanese who are now struggling to survive in South Sudan and neighbouring countries.

What is Behind Peace Talks in Addis Ababa?

By Peter Gai Manyuon

June 10, 2014 (SSNA) -- Since the genesis of South Sudan crisis started from December 2013 to date, there have been many discussions here and there between the Government of Salvatore Kiir Mayardit and the Sudan People Liberation Movement in Opposition (SPLM/IO) headed by Dr Machar in Addis-Ababa.

More interestingly, peace process has been use as the opportunity by those who are jobless from all over the world to be the only place for employment opportunity. Many whites, Africans who are tyrants as well, have taken the peace talk in a way that is not understandable up to now.

Each and every one from Inter-Government Authority on Development (IGAD), African Union, International Community all want to benefits from the peace talks through getting cash for survival. What a shame?

Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) has been wasting time since the genesis of the crisis culminated. There had been lots of proposals given to the both parties to come together but in other way around they are making  business which is not yet realize by the two warring sides. Millions of dollars have been wasted day and night by the government of South Sudan to block the ongoing peace process. More importantly, the international Communities are also going on their ways as well, they seem to be looking for the rectifications of the current problem in South Sudan but in other hand, they are making very big profits between the two sides. To mention few, there is a very big employment opportunity gained by the different stakeholders in Ethiopians Capital Addis-Ababa. People are moving with briefcases that are full of dollars and the main issue for the money is to sabotage the peace deal so that, the peace process will not progress well that is why there is always postponement monthly by monthly, day by day. To you, what do you think is delaying the peace process?

Do you think that, the agenda for the next discussion is not yet found or identify?   The author of this article, have visualized and internalized  the problem is the interests between the western world in the peace process in South Sudan and the regional body like Inter-governmental Authority on the Development (IGAD). God of heaven see South Sudanese?

When you evaluate what is going on in Addis-Ababa, you find that, even those who don’t not read and write are there monitoring the peace process. How can illiterate monitor the peace process? Very big insult!!!

However, one of my contemporary told me that, hotels are filled up by the both rebels and government officials in Addis-Ababa. The Representation in the peace process has been taken by some clicks of people as Community by community and they are now trying to forget the vision and the mission of the peace process. What a disgrace?

Analysis of what is going to happen in the end!!

If you look at the current crisis of South Sudan, you find that, it increases day by day, many diplomats, Generals; Members of Parliament are still defecting to the rebel’s side as we speak. Therefore, most of the elite class has got the solution of the South Sudan problem since then, what is remaining is the resumption of the fighting which I think will soon happen if nothing is coming to reality in Addis-Ababa within this month. All the stakeholders concerning with the peace talk don’t want to find the solution very fast because if the solution to the ongoing crisis of South Sudan is rectify very soon, then their dollars that they always get will not exist. 

Absolutely, facts must be said, people are deceiving themselves there is peace talk when both sides are just accusing each other of not implementing the peace deal signed between the Government and the opposition group.

My Prayer

Heavenly father, the creator of the universe, living things and non-living things, I take this time to call upon your name and power to dismantle whoever is sabotaging the ongoing peace process in Addis-Ababa. May you lord see who is trying to make the peace as a business place rather than bringing peace to the South Sudanese that have been displaced and many got killed in good numbers because of bad leadership full of corruption, hatred, tribalism and illiteracy.

Oh my God, you mentioned in your words in the bible that, if someone ask something in your name will be given to him/her. Right now, am asking your kindness to take who ever want to destroyed the Republic of South Sudan and her citizen in Jesus name. God you are the kings of kings, you are the truth and the life and you are everything, why not you to see critically, and eliminate those who are reducing the small population of South Sudan? What are you waiting for? And moreover your people have perished in Juba, Malakal, Bentiu , Mapel and Bor when they were killed by Politicians who instructed their youths to killed innocent people.

My God, I know your dignity and righteousness will bring peace and harmony in South Sudan, where people will stay in peace and joyfulness.

God, as South Sudanese, we have realized that after you gave us our Independence, we have forgotten you; people are struggling on whom to get what. The resources that were supposed to be use for development were use for evil things that are against your wish my lord. God almighty, enough is enough, therefore, we need your immediate action and response in a very amicable way within this month so that we can go and stay in our Country then staying in exiles and bushes. God of South Sudan, we need your full help and analytical way of punishing those who abused your power, name by killing each other. How can the all world fight for one tribe that you created for a purpose? Your immediate action in realization of peace and harmony will be paramount. In Jesus name I pray and I believe. Amen.

The author is the Independent Journalist and Columnist who has written extensively on the issues of Democratization and human rights in South Sudan, he is reachable on This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it . He is publishing a book soon on the tribalism and Corruption in South Sudan context.

Twi Leaders, History Distortion and its Implication for South Sudan (Part I)

By Kuir ë Garang

June 10, 2014 (SSNA) -- What would you do to leaders who want to benefit politically by sacrificing the truth about their own ethnic history? How would you call leaders who advise young people to forget about their history because it’s inconveniencing the falsehood and the political cocoon they’ve built for their selfish interests? How would you trust leaders who can’t unite their own counties but dream of being national leaders in South Sudan? Where in the world does an adult tell young, enthusiastic, truth-seeking people to never, ever talk about their own history? Would you trust a leader who tells his own kids to not be proud of their authentic history and embrace a vilifying, demeaning reality? Too many questions, I know!

Unfortunately, this is exactly what Twi leaders of Jonglei state tell their young people and the less informed populace.

Writers read to authenticate or defend what they write! As I continue to grow, read and discover realities about myself and where I come from, I continue to get appalled at how distorted my own history has become and how leaders from my own county (Twi) are sleeping on the truth in order to protect their interests. If these leaders are decided on destroying our history for their interests, then I’ll expose them to South Sudanese in order to protect my daughter from an impending future in which people pride in falsehood because it’s beneficial. She’ll grow up knowing the value of truth and respect for others.

Destroy our history and we’ll destroy you! Mess with our history and you’re messing with my daughter’s authentic pride and sense of self. And that, my people, is what Europeans and Arabs did to us! Who can allow that AGAIN?!

Some Arabs and the Europeans distorted our sense of pride and historical truth. Why would I want my own leaders to do the same?

Historically, we’ve always been the Twi Dinka, Nyarweng Dinka, Bor Dinka, Hol Dinka, Rek Dinka, Aliap Dinka, Thoi Dinka, Rut Dinka, Twic Dinka, Agar Dinka, Malwal Dinka, Ciec Dinka…etc. That was beautiful not divisive!

Administrative realities have distorted everything so many people refer collectively to Twi, Nyarweng, Hol and Bor as Dinka Bor. How can Bor be a subset of itself?

So Moulana Abel Alier and Dr. John Garang De Mabior are considered to both be Dinka Bor; or Kuol Manyang and Majak D’Agoot are all considered to be Dinka Bor. Dr. Majak and Dr. John are Twi Dinka while Honourable Kuol Manyang and Moulana Abel Alier are Bor Dinka. This was true in the past and is now true; however, politics and personal interests have distorted it. It’s therefore high time someone who has nothing to lose but to point out the truth speaks up. As a writer who does research, there’s no way in hell I can disregard documented history that correlate the words of our ancestors. I owe it to my daughter and the future generation. (See the attached list of readings for more information!)

The Twi people

The Twi Section of the Jieeng of Jonglei State is currently housed by ‘Twic East County.’ Regrettably, these people have been shuttled between different administrative districts from the colonial period to the present to the point that their ethnic reality has been distorted by their own leaders and the outsiders that are feeding on what these leaders present. Of notable districts that the Twi people have been part of are the former ‘Bor District’ since the early 20th century and the former ‘Kongor District’ from the 1970s until the SPLA war.

The Bor District was named after the Bor people, the now inhabitants of the ‘Bor County.’ Kongor District was named after one section of the Twi Dinka. The use of the name of a given section within the larger community has created problems. Naming the District of Twi, Kongor created many problems as other Twi sections didn’t want their district named after one of their fellow sections of Twi. However, Kongor was also a government post named after the section of Kongor so the administrators were naming the district after the town; which unfortunately was the name of one section of the Twi. It’s good to remember that the Kongor section never referred to the whole of the Twi people as ‘Dinka Kongor.’

Unfortunately, the same problem came up with the Bor District in a slightly different manner. The district was named after the Bor people, however; other Jieeng sections who are not Bor were included in the Bor District. Twi, Nyarweng and Hol were included in the District. While they were all called the Dinka of Bor District (previously Southern or South Eastern Dinka) it has now become a general knowledge to some people that they are all Bor people. Bor people are the ones who now inhabit ‘Bor County.’

The name Bor applied to Twi, Nyarweng and Hol because of their inclusion in the ‘Bor District’ not because they are the same section of Dinka. The four sub-tribes speak different dialects (verify that for yourself). This inclusion in Bor District of Twi, Nyarweng and Hol has caused a lot of confusion among them with some people arguing that they are all Bor and some arguing otherwise. Since were no longer have Bor District as a reference point, it would be ridiculous to call Twi, Dinka of Bor. It would have made sense to call Twi Dinka of Bor District if we had a District called Bor that includes them administratively. The rightful Bor people (dialectally or ethnolinguistically) are the current inhabitants of Bor County.

So the next time you call Kuir ë Garang, Madam Rebecca Nyandeeng, Dr. Majak D’Agoot or Dr. Lual A. Achuek ‘Dinka Bor’, then know that you are not only falling into a falsified reality; you are also showing that you don’t know much about the people of the late Dr. John Garang De Mabior. Dr. John was from Awulian section of Twi in the now Nyuak Payam. Dr. John spoke a totally different Jieeng dialect as opposed to what Honorable Kuol Manyang speaks.

Diallectally or ethnolinguistically, Dr. John would ask: “ŋic kiir bï wo lɔ kuaŋ thïn?” and Moulana Abel Alier would say “Nyic ciir bïï wɔ lɔ kuaŋ thin?” And this means in English: “Do you know the river in which we are going to swim in?” Verify that for yourself!

‘Greater Bor’

Since the former inhabitants of the Bor District (Bor, Twi, Nyarweng and Hol) have their separate counties, (Bor County, Twic East County & Duk County) the leaders in these communities decided that a common name was required for reasons known to them. And against all logic, they settled for a name of just one section among them: Bor. ‘Greater Bor’ was therefore chosen as supposedly a unifying name.

Since there’s no longer a District that includes the four communities, one wonders what area is being qualified as ‘greater’? We only have Bor County which carries the name Bor and also the State Capital. If it’s Bor County that’s being qualified as ‘greater’ then I fail to understand how it includes the other two counties. If the reference is to the former Bor District then why not ‘Greater Kongor?’ And why would they invoke an old, defunct administrative district that was left by Twi, Nyarweng and Hol over forty years ago?

The leaders in these counties know very well the ethnic and linguistic realities of the four communities. It’s known internally and there’s a load of historical records to prove it. However, Twi leaders believe that it’s better to be nice for political reasons than to be truthful.

They know that Twi is a separate ethnic identity; however, these leaders want to sacrifice Twi’s history because they believe telling the world the authentic Twi history and reality would anger the Bor people. It’s therefore better for the Twi history to be sacrificed. Too bad for them! History is documented!

The mere inclusion of the Twi people in the Bor District is being used to change Twi’s ethnic identity. Does inclusion in a given administrative district change people’s ethnic identity?

Some of these leaders think that because outsiders have used the name ‘Dinka Bor’ to collectively refer to the four sections of Jieeng of Jonglei then we have to just let it go that way. Is that how history is supposed to be? And the main motivation for such a state of mind is that correcting such a mistake is going to cause division and misunderstanding so ‘just let it go!’

Just imagine this scenario. Galuak, Lado, Ojullu and Sam decide to live in a two bedroom apartment that was previously rented by Galuak alone. Galuak has been renting the apartment for two years. The four friends now live together in that same apartment. After a year together, Ojullu suggests that they start a business and so a good name was required. Lado suggested that the business would be called ‘Galuak Enterprise.’ Sam and Ojullu were surprised. Galuak didn’t mind the name because it’s his name after all. Lado’s logic was that the house they’ve been living in has always been called ‘Galuak’s apartment’ and it would cause problems as Galuak would feel his name is being rejected should they create an inclusive name. Sam and Ojullu suggested the business be given a name that reflects and respects all the four friends. They also didn’t understand why their collective business should only carry Galuak’s name.

This is the same case with Bor, Twi, Hol and Nyarweng: ‘Greater Bor’ for all of them! While it was bad enough that they were all included in a district (by the Brits) that carried a name of only one of them (Bor) in the past, the leaders are doing the same now: using the name Bor to unify the four sub-tribes. This has no logical sense and has no historical basis.

‘Greater Bor’ not only distorts the history of the four peoples, it also portrays the problem of opportunism in South Sudan. If there’s such a thing as ‘Greater Bor’ then what’s its dialect and what’s its headquarters in Jonglei State? And why not ‘Greater Kongor’, ‘Greater Mongalla’ or ‘Greater Duk’ since some of us were part of these administrative centres in the past?

Historical Distortions and Opportunism

The good question is why would South Sudanese be interested in the history of these people? Should we not be concerned about national issues not these local matters?

First, there’s nothing trivial about a people’s history. It’s Twi people now but it could be you tomorrow. Would you allow your history to be distorted when you’ve learned beyond any reasonable doubt that it was and continues to be distorted for political interests?

Besides, this small sub-tribe, the Twi, of Jieeng of Jonglei has produced exceptional and national leaders since the first Anyanya war to the present. In the past, we had Mading de Garang, Akuot Atem de Mayen, Arok Thon Arok, Dr. John Garang de Mabior among others. These were not just leaders; they were leaders of national significance.

Now, we have among the Twi leaders, Dr. Lual A. Deng (former minister of petroleum in Sudan’s government of national unity), Dr. Majak D’Agoot (former Sudan’s deputy for national security and later, South Sudan’s deputy minister for defence), Madam Rebecca Nyandeeng (former minister of Roads and Transportation), Elijah Malok Aleng (former governor of South Sudan Central Bank), Atem Garang Dekuek (former deputy Speaker in the Sudan’s national assembly and government Chief Whip in South Sudan National Assembly), Deng Dau Malek… etc.

These latter leaders know that the history of their people was distorted and continue to be distorted; however, they are helping in its distortion. In a mind-boggling problem, they avoid inquisitive Twi youth who have come to extensively study the history of the Twi people and relate it to what they know and how it differs from what these leaders maintain.

These Twi leaders are afraid to come out and correct the distortion because it would compromise their standing in the eyes of the Bor people or what?... I don’t know. How can you trust leaders who mislead the uninformed and avoid the informed youth in their own community? What good would these leaders do to South Sudan?

How would such leaders have the interest of South Sudan in heart if they don’t care about their own counties? Not only have they let down their own counties in terms of development, they are helping in the complete destruction of their own history.

We’ve implored them to correct the mistakes but they are either dismissive or escapists. “Just let it go! We can’t do anything now!” they say! Just imagine someone from your own community telling you to stop reading or toss your history in favor of someone else’s truth!

Unity and Division

These leaders believe that talking about the real history of Twi and correcting it would cause disunity. Would you sacrifice your history for the sake of unity? Everyone in the world knows the value of history. No one would hate you or believe you’re being divisive when you correct your own history. Unity under falsehood is dangerous for the younger generation and a bad precedent in South Sudan. Falsehood or Truth can be covered up but it doesn’t last!

Slave traders in Europe tried it; Europeans colonialists tried it; American segregationists tried it; South African Racist regime tried it… No one can prosper on a concocted falsehood.

Bor, Twi, Nyarweng and Hol, as I’ve always said, have created a bond that’ll always be there. They are brothers and sisters and will always be! We don’t have to distort some histories or appease some people to maintain unity though. There’s no way their unity would be compromised if Bor people understand precisely that what is being corrected are historical mistakes. However, many Bor people know what I’m saying is the truth; however, like Galuak above, it’s their name being promoted after all.

However, Bor people and leaders are not the problem. They can’t correct Twi’s history if Twi people themselves don‘t want to do it. Twi leaders and elders are the problem. And they are the problem because political benefits have become more important than their people’s authentic histories.

Would you allow such leaders in your own community or see them handling national affairs? If they don’t care about their own why would one think they’d care about South Sudanese? If they treat their youth like idiots, how do you think they’d treat South Sudanese youth?

Implication for South Sudan

The current crisis was brought about by cooking up events and distortion of information for political interest. We don’t want leaders like these in South Sudan. It’s up to you in your own county to see if your leaders have the interest of the people at heart or they think for themselves. If we had leaders who care about the interest of the people, we would not have the current crisis and thousands of civilians would have not died.

Let’s hold leaders accountable! Let no one destroy our histories…AGAIN!

Sample readings on the history of Twi people

1- Johnson, Douglas H., The Roots Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars: Peace or Truce, Kampala,: Fountain Publishers, 2011, pp.65 & 92
2- Will, C. A, The Upper Nile Province Hand Book: a report on peoples and government in the Southern Sudan, 1931, New York: Oxford University, Press, 1995
3- Collins, Robert O, Land Beyond the Rivers : The Southern Sudan 1898-1918, New Haven:Yale University Press, 1971
4- Daly, M. W. Empire on the Nile The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1898-1934, Cambridge: University Press,1986 pp.146-147,149 & 151
5- Kelly, Raymond Case, The Nuer Conquest: The Structure and Development of an Expansionist System, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1985 pp.58 & 161 & 258
6- See Sudan Notes and Records Volume XI (1928) ‘The Cult of Deng’ by C. A. Willis, p.196
7- Sudan Notes and Records, Volume XVII (1934), Part 1 ‘The Religious and Spiritual Beliefs of the Bor Dinka’ by R. T Johnson, pp. 126 &.128.
8- Honea, Kenneth, The Deng Cult and it’s Connections with the Goddess Aciek Among the Dinka, Vienna: Wiener Volkerkundliche Mitteilungen 2, no. 1, 1954, p.17
9- Howell, P, Lock, M & Cobb, S, The Jonglei Canal: Impact and Opportunity, Cambridge: UP, 1988, p.206

Kuir ë Garang is a South Sudanese author and poet living in Canada. For contact visit www.kuirthiy.info

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