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SPLM in Crisis: School Boys on the School Playground!

By Kuir ë Garang

December 15, 2013 (SSNA) -- South Sudanese are becoming too simple minded. Even worse, we’re starting to adopt a culture of ‘if you’re not with us then you’re with them.’ This Bushitic, Reaganitic and Thatcheritic political simplism wouldn’t be in anyone’s favor in South Sudan.

No! South Sudanese society is more complicated than that simplistic, scare-tactic sorry politicking.

The current wrangling within SPLM is not only an embarrassment to the current leaders and the ‘party’. It’s also a desecration of liberation history and abuse to the fallen heroes and voices of the liberation struggle starting from 1947.

Who is clean in the SPLM? Who has built and developed his/her constituency to raise any voice against anyone? Leaving the government doesn’t translate into being free of corruption! SPLM leadership is corrupt to the core.

Good leaders don’t whine; they initiate methods that lead to resolution of the problems in hand regardless of how such methods affect their lives. It’s time for the SPLM leadership to stop accusations and counter-accusations and come up with workable solutions to the country’s problems.

Stop telling us what we already know. We know what problems the country is facing and we know how incompetent SPLM leadership is! What we need to hear are appreciable strategies to solve the problems.

Riek Machar, Pagan Amum and Nyandeng de Mabior, among others, came out in force to accuse the party (mostly confused with the government) of failures of its leadership. The failure of the party (government) is apparent. We know it. But we don’t know of anyone who’s come out to clearly spell out the best way out. We are sick of hearing complaints against Kiir and failures of the party by members of the same party!

Kiir Mayardit, Wani Igga and Kuol Manyang, in response to Riek and company, acted like school boys: “You abuse me, I abuse you! You tell me I’ve done this, I tell you you’ve done that!” How old are these people again?

If leadership is lacking in South Sudan, then what happened to the wisdom of tribal Africanness, of age? What happened to the integrity of the African elder man?

We all know 1991 was a disaster that almost derailed the people’s struggle. This is a historical fact Riek Machar and Lam Akol have to deal with forever; whether they are dead or alive; whether they like it or not. However, reminding us of 1991 all the time is political blame and grand irresponsibility we don’t need. We need history mentioned to improve the country not to destroy it, to divide it and win apologists!

And then president Kiir is talking of having never ever betrayed the people’s struggle! Really? Isn’t that same Kiir who was part of those sent by the Sudanese government to kill their brothers in Anyanya II in late 70s and early 80s? Wasn’t it Riek Machar who convinced the same Kiir in 2004 to come back to the movement? Kiir almost betrayed South Sudan at the eve of CPA signing! The saddest thing is that President Kiir is doing exactly what he accused John Garang of in 2004.

Mr. President, we are writing history down so protect your legacy!

Riek is corrupt and so is Kiir! Riek once betrayed the aspirations of the people! Kiir is betraying the aspirations of the people now! Riek showed his incompetence in his handling of Nasir-group! Kiir has proven now beyond any reasonable doubt that he’s incompetent. So gentlemen, we’ve seen you! Can you now sit and talk before you embarrass yourselves even more…and destroy the nation?

Mr. Wani Igga, you terribly failed South Sudan in your response to complaints raised by  the 14 members of the political Bureau. Instead of acting like a leader, you acted like a teenage boy in a school back yard. You need to show leadership!

We know Riek Machar and the group are not any better. They are equally corrupt and they publicly criticize the party they assume to be protecting. That we know is wrong! They need to seek internal avenues to solve the problem.

However, what they are saying is the natural truth. SPLM is a mess and things need to change! Small minded people are saying Nyandeeng de Mabior is spoiling her legacy by standing with Riek Machar. They see Riek Machar as dirty and untouchable. Well, they are either too self-righteous to acknowledge the problems, bigoted or they are those who see the world in black and white: “If you don’t agree with us then you agree with them.”

This is very common among the Jieng of Jonglei; especially the Nyarweng, Hol, Twi and Bor people. They are very self-righteous as if the world revolves around them. Okay, a number of prominent liberation leaders come from their tribes: Dr. John was Twi, Arok Thon was Twi, Akuot Atem was Twi, Kuol Manyang is Bor, Majier was Bor …and Nyandeeng herself being Twi…among others. However, that doesn’t make you better than anyone. Stick with ideas rather than personalities.

As much as we don’t like Pagan and company as they are, like Kiir and company, two sides of the same coin, we have to learn to acknowledge the truth. Why convene National Liberation Council (NLC) meeting before the Political Bureau (PB) meeting? Leaders don’t avoid problems, they solve them!

Those bashing Nyandeeng need to grow up and look at what’s happening in South Sudan. John Garang stood with Riek Machar in Nairobi and welcome him back after their bloody disagreement. He also made Riek Machar the third senior leader in the SPLM. Maybe we should blame John Garang for bringing Riek back to the SPLM. History is known, but it should not divide us!  

Kuir ë Garang is the author of ‘South Sudan Ideologically’ and “Is ‘Black’ Really Beautiful?”   For contact see www.kuirthiy.info  or follow him on Twitter:@kuirthiy.

SPLM On The Brink

By Deng Vanang

‘’If we dwell on discussing presence and the past, we shall find that in between we have lost the future, said the British former war time Prime Minister Winston Churchill.’’

December 13, 2013 (SSNA) -- The stages are set on conspicuously high podia with booming sounds of microphones roaring forth and back between the bickering SPLM’s factions. Each faction has its own identity tag emanating from the duration upon which it articulates its political point of view. Machar’s group is lamenting on the presence as mismanaged by Kiir’s group while the latter echoes the divisive past of 1991. And all have lost sight on the future as the alternative that could bail the party from its current challenges of the failed governance.

It all began on the afternoon of 6th December when Machar’s group addressed the press in the SPLM house’s compound. At the conference, the group issued their press statement containing a litany of Kiir group’s unforgivable political transgressions. Among them on which to enlighten the public are the issues crippling the party internal operations as well as those that are hampering government service delivery to the long suffering people of South Sudan.

Machar group’s issues of discord

The SPLM outsider faction accused Kiir’s group of sidelining them by surrendering the governance to the ethno - regional lobbies and close business associates who have over run the party affairs in deciding in particular who to be shown the door or allowed to cruise through to the cabinet home and dry. Decried the involvement of the intruders from other South Sudan politically parties perhaps without consulting them, a strategy to dominate cabinet with people who would only pass decisions favorable to him. Much hue and cry from the group is Kiir’s wanton destruction of economy with oil and tax revenues tucked into the thieving fingers of Kiir’s closest lieutenants, especially the Bahr El Ghazal power barons and business mandarins, regionally and ethnically inclined policies that see Dinka ethnic group of below 25% of the country total population always scooping more than sixty percent of the total positions while the rest remain scrambling over less than forty percent. His selling out of the party big time to the foreign agents and former colonial power, the ruling National Congress Party in the north from which several political returnees they regarded as opportunists have clawed back to the SPLM and dangerously rocked the boat from within on the unsafe high seas.

The likely veiled foreign agents may be Sudan and neighboring East African countries that have so far been seen by observers of having a dirty hand in South Sudan internal affairs by taking the advantage of the country’s inefficiency to craft sound economic policies of self - reliance. Not to miss out on the complain list of Machar’s angry and hungry group is the confirmation of the army in the party or party in the army South Sudanese public have all along been complaining about mixing wheat and maize or literally mixing politics and the army when the group found fault with kiir in demobilizing those they regarded as seasoned SPLA Commanders thrown into wilderness of redundancy so as to erase the historical legacy of SPLM and form his personal army under the guise of presidential guards, which in SPLM politics in relation with other political parties such private army is normally referred to as hostile militia group organized to overthrow the democratically elected SPLM government.

Besides appointing second or third tier SPLM leaders/cadres to head two houses of the National legislature as well as to the cabinet when he Kiir had a problem with first tier SPLM leaders/cadres, the historically chest thumping and acclaimed card carrying owners of the party who narrowly survived the horrors of the 23 years old bush war. To break the last straw on the camel’s back is what they publicly riled as Kiir unconstitutional and selective ouster of the elected State Governors namely Chol Tong Mayai of Lakes and Taban Deng Gai of Unity because of politically differing with him with Kuol Manyang Juuk being removed and relocated to the key Ministry of Defense on his consent despite presiding on the ruins of Somalia type State of Jonglei. That is beside his arbitrary suspension of party Secretary – General, Pagan Amum on unconvincing reasons and dissolution of key party’s organs such as the executive wing - the Political Bureau he of late refused to convene its meetings, legislative wing - the National Liberation Council and State Secretariats in whose place he instructed the sitting State Governors, all SPLM members allied to him, to hand pick delegates to the National Liberation Council meeting at which the controversial clauses prone to manipulation and intimidation like voting by a show of hands, the Chairman having to nominate 5% of the total delegates more loyal to him to create an edge over competitors, desirous to appoint leaders of all party organs in the SPLM basic rules and refusal to consider term limit in the party that could be in turn enshrined in the national constitution can be passed without facing any opposition. Which to them, Kiir did such unpatriotic move with an intent to form his own party closely linked to the NCP embraced in the warmth of newly found marriage of convenience over oil flow and Abyei with SPLM and distantly delinked from historic struggle of the people of South Sudan.

The group bemoaned Kiir defamatory statements that suggested having dismissed them from the government due to corruption and failure to deliver services ironically during the dry spell of nearly two years old biting austerity measures as a strong arm tactic means to divert public attention from deceptive methods of servicing none existing 4 billion USD debt the government never bothered informing the public about when borrowing it in addition to infamous Dura saga, shoddy roads construction contracts and defamation letter to 75 SPLM historical leaders/cadres whose identity he is not willing to disclose. And with all the above mentioned arbitrary policies Kiir group has put the party in particular and the country in general on the fatal brink of chaos and disorder, concluded Machar’s group. Or alternatively to avoid this brinkmanship, the SPLM Chairman should call for the PB meeting in order to set the agenda for the NLC as per current party constitution so as to correct the deviation from the SPLM vision and direction, address the present challenges within the SPLM in order to revitalize and resort the SPLM to the driving seat so that the liberation party could rediscover the roots it has lost to hold the steering wheel of two historical processes of both nation and state - buildings.

Kiir group

With kiir group rubbishing most of the accusations as outrageous and equally divisive lies coming from people who have lost grips of power in the party and government while hitting back hard on Machar group’s stone throwing from glass house suggesting it has shared in the administrative anomalies of which they have accused their group. More notably the lost of SPLM vision as well articulated by the party’s founder, the late Dr. John Garang De Mabior whose widow Madam Rebecca and son Mabior are the staunch members of the opposite group and run away corruption that has eaten deeply into the SPLM soul and flesh. The group went on offensive to defend the verbally bartered allies - NCP refugees and poached members from other political parties - dismissed by Machar group as opportunists heel-bent on hijacking the ruling party. Since the chief {Machar} of the renegades, according to them, was in fact a founding member of NCP back in the era of Khartoum Peace or surrender Agreement he himself signed with NIF turned NCP against the SPLM/A he is today preventing other former members of rejoining. And for them the group is just complaining of being outside power after mass dismissal from the cabinet on the 23rd July far from the party mismanagement and subsequent loss of vision as decried reasons of their multiple discontentments. Kiir group sounded a clear warning to some in Machar’s group to watch out over shoulders on their graft charges with suspended Secretary-General, Pagan Amum requested to be humble enough so as to honorably accept his failure in running the party as its chief executive officer, a repeated allegation the embattled suspended Secretary – General has been rubbishing as untrue since the party administration has been virtually taken over from him many years ago by Kiir’s closest cronies with his backing. Kiir group concluded by asking Machar group to desist from introducing strange vocabularies of divisions and culture of indiscipline via media war into the SPLM, stop inciting the armed forces of South Sudan against the President of the Republic and also the Commander-in-chief and threatening creation of instability, chaos and disorder in South Sudan coupled with alerting the SPLM members and the entire citizens of the Republic of South Sudan to be watchful of the disgruntled group who are nothing but selfish perpetrators with no place in nation and state building.

National Liberation Council

The December 15th seems to be the final date to convene NLC meeting that gets postponed severally and currently overshadowed by the first public rally of Machar’s group slated to take place on the same date, probably to assure the public on their resolve to slug it out with Kiir’s group over the party leadership come rain come shine. In that meeting, members of the NLC of about 150 and some of whom are not longer part of the SPLM - South while the rest have succumbed to the grim reaper/death or defected to other political parties courtesy of bickering and subsequent confusion that has characterized the operations of the ruling party since 2008 Second National Convention, will attend the volatile meeting. The extra – ordinary meeting shall take place again to fine tone what will be backlogs or contentious issues of the ongoing NLC’s meeting before the Third National Convention to take place between March and April next year, 2014.

Between theses exchanges of barbs, the public and the press seemed to have a soft spot on Machar group they regarded as diplomatic in expressing their own political point of view as opposed to Kiir group’s no - holds - barred attack on personalities in Machar camp rather than eloquently deliberating on pertinent issues of discord. Kiir group whose members except Dr. Riek Gai Kok seem to be falling short of oratory skills before the public gallery compared to more eloquent members of Machar camp, is also proving what Machar group laments as their dictatorial stand because of its many futile attempts to place a lid on party politics which is the free market place of progressive ideas, especially in trying to prevent the group from exercising their civil liberties such as freedom of expression, movement and association which are the core elements of participatory democracy. Machar group has not come out of this verbal war unscathed either. One, in its ranks and files are individuals publicly accused of lining pockets with petro-dollars, effectively depriving them of high moral ground to preach ethics of good governance. Two, the fact that they were dismissed and not voluntarily resigned from the government made them accomplices in the politico-economic crimes they accused Kiir and co. of perpetrating against people of South Sudan. Their cry from outside the fence can likely be viewed by the public as a groan of a jilted wife over the opportunities she has unwittingly lost.

Deng Vanang is a journalist and Executive member of South Sudan’s leading opposition party, the SPLM-DC.

Dr Riek Machar: Please Stop Insulting the People of South Sudan

By Elhag Paul

December 10, 2013 (SSNA) -- The widely advertised press conference of Riek Machar and group and the National Liberation Council meeting of General Wani Igga have all turned out to be utter disappointment.  Let us begin with Riek.  He raised the hopes of the people and yet again he failed pathetically to deliver.  This brings us to the routinely asked question: Is Riek a person with a pedigree of a leader?  It is vital that this question is objectively answered if only to ensure that South Sudan does not once more find itself in a grip of another incompetent leader(s).

Riek’s press conference was neither convincing nor offering any hope to the crashed people of South Sudan.  Almost 5 months since his sacking from government, it appears he has not really sat down to cogitate seriously about the problems of the country and those they collectively created including president Kiir as the leadership of the SPLM.  The reasons Riek and his group offered against president Kiir is to say the least laughable.  These accusations are not new and actually South Sudanese upto village level are well versed with it.

The current schism in SPLM mirrors the one in 2004 with Kiir then in opposition against Dr John Garang.  At the time, Kiir as the deputy of Garang was discontented with Garang’s management of the organisation.  He shed tears that he was being sidelined, not considered and hunted by SPLA security.  He lambasted Garang with numerous examples of poor management of the movement.  For example he asserted in the Rumbek meeting that “The chairman seems to have taken the movement as his own property.”

SPLM at that particular time was about to self-destruct but the prospects of the peace agreement with Khartoum and the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement played a very important role in bringing the protagonists together.  With everybody tired of war and in anticipation of a government in Juba funded by share of the oil money Kiir and Garang reconciled.

The minutes of Rumbek meeting of 2004 shows the deliberation was honest.  The meeting identified two thirds of the problems afflicting the organisation.  Here are some quotes that give a glimpse of the chaos in SPLM:

“If we are National leaders, which I don’t believe we are because we have no cohesion with our leadership structure, let us be sincere with ourselves.  After meetings are conducted, we run to foreign countries.  There is no code of conduct to guide the movement.” (Kiir)

“Corruption as a result of the lack of structures, has created a lack of accountability which has reached a proportion that will be difficult to eradicate.” (Kiir)

“I also want to say that the movement is in the hands of few and many are alienated.  National resources must be shared by all, no matter how small it is.  The structures are controlled by a few minority group and this must be sorted out in Rumbek.  This minority group is the problem, hand picking people must stop now because it is creating problems.” (Garang Mabil)

“On structures the only way to resolve it is through the national convention which should be convened as soon as possible” (John Garang)

“At the moment some members of the movement have formed private companies, bought houses and have huge bank accounts in foreign countries.  I wonder what kind of a system are we going to establish in South Sudan considering ourselves indulged in this respect.” (Kiir)

“The Chairman has been everything ever since the movement started. I call upon the Chairman to work with people and not alone. The Chairman should know that he has been wrong because some of the members have not been telling him the truth. Some leaders should be blamed for not doing their part, for many have not been doing things properly. I repeat what Cdr. Salva said that Dr. John does not forget and forgive. So I want to say that those without guns are vulnerable. The Cdrs. Are secure because they have guns to protect themselves from the Chairman, but I ask, who is going to protect those of us without guns.” (Justin Yac)

From these quotes Kiir asserts that they are not leaders (he has proven it), that the movement has no systems and that the organisation is ridden with corruption.  Mabil emphasises the problematic practice of group within a group and Dr Garang acknowledges the lack of structures.   Justic Yac highlights the brutal nature of the organisation.  In effect SPLM internally has always been a chaotic organisation and this is what they imported into the government of South Sudan.  However, externally they projected a false picture of a formidable well managed organisation.  This falsity is falling apart now because as Hannah Arendt in her book ‘On Revolution’ tells us that a king remains respected and obeyed so long as he is clothed.  Once part of his body is exposed by lifting the cloth he loses all respect and with it power.

Therefore, a quick glance at the minutes of Rumbek meeting shows the problems of the SPLM since its inception under its two leaders: late Dr John Garand and now president Kiir.  These problems are not new at all.  They are in fact historically rooted.  What Riek et al did in their press conference was to amplify them for their benefit.  In doing that they shot themselves in the foot.

SPLM being what it is, a tribally dominated joint refused to learn from its weaknesses.  When they came into government soon after the Rumbek meeting they were lucky to be gifted with a government appropriately funded by oil money. Had they been foresighted they would have straight away organised the SPLM introducing membership fees to fund the activities of the organisation and to address the weaknesses identified in Rumbek.  Swimming in petro-dollars the leadership forgot about addressing these serious issues.  Predictably what happened was a continuation of a culture everyone of the leadership decried: corruption, lack of structures, tribalism, abuse of power etc.  They opted to use state funds to manage and promote the SPLM in blatant abuse of power in order to weaken every opposition party in the country as they have done.  Please see my previous article ‘The Corruption Saga – the SPLM big Five Big Guns or the Quintet Squirrels’ http://allafrica.com/stories/201202271279.html 

So they continued with their ways promoting all the ills they identified.  No wonder, it was a matter of time before cracks began to appear in SPLM as it did and indeed it has widened.

What was expected from Riek was first for him and his group to come clean on their contribution in the SPLM to the mess they have done to the country.  This is called taking responsibility and it is a measure of maturity and a sign that they have reflected and come to terms with their weaknesses.  This would at least make the people to have a sympathetic look on them.  But as it is, this group seems not to have learnt anything and they are not better than president Kiir and his assortment of colourful allies.  It highlights the saying that the leopard can not change its spots.

Secondly, it was expected that the groups’ challenge would be grounded on the president Kiir’s violations of the parties governing document with clear references to the violated clauses.

Thirdly, it was expected that Riek would unveil a clear programme of action to get the country out of the mess they created.  

Fourthly and vitally Riek needed to provide extensive explanation on what an administration under his leadership would do to address the pernicious issues of corruption, tribalism, killings etc which they have been part of.  Sadly enough, Riek incompetently did not even bother to delve into these core issues.  The inference inevitably must be this group is not ready to move away from their set behaviours and culture of abuse.  They are only unhappy because they are not in the gravy train of president Kiir.

This group was happy being in president Kiir’s ‘rotten to the core’ government without any inkling.  Majority of them did not speak out against any of the issues they are now accusing president Kiir of.  In fairness, Pagan and Majak tried to do something but they stopped short.  Please see ‘my article ‘The Cogs of the Oyee Machine Desert President Kiir’ http://allafrica.com/stories/201205290096.html

If this group really meant what is in their press statement they should have resigned from the government when abuses were going on under their watch.  For example, Gen. Oyayi Deng Ajak was the minister for security when Isaiah Abraham was murdered.  What did he do to ensure that the murderers were brought to justice?  Why has he been quiet all along?  John Luke was the minister of Justice, what did he do to address the issues of investigation into the murder of Isaiah Abraham, the slaughter of Banyjoth Matoat Tap, the murder of police officers in Yambio, the rampant corruption etc?  Was it not John Luke who vowed not to see any prosecution of people accused of corruption?  Again, was it not John Luke and Michael Makuie with Wani Igga who imposed the shoddy interim constitution on the South Sudanese people?  What about Michael Makuie’s recent bravado with the media fraternity?  What have the members of this group done to exonerate themselves from the accusation of corruption and poor governance?

Riek’s press statement is deficient in elucidating his claim to have a ‘vision and direction’ for the country.  Since March 2013 when he declared his intention to topple president Kiir in the SPLM at the SPLM Politburo meeting, Riek has not made any attempt to explain clearly what his vision and direction for the country is.  He just kept singing these words without providing any flesh to it.  When the opportunity presented itself for him to clarify his position to the people on 6th December 2013 he ended up saying nothing.  This is a proof that Riek has no agenda at all for the country but ambition to accede to power at the expense of the people and whoever is thinking of voting for him and his group should review that position in light of this evidence.

What the people expected to hear was what type of South Sudan this group envisions?  What methods would they apply to bring about their vision?  How would it be measured and how would the man on the street benefit?  How would they deliver basic services (health, housing, employment, education) to the people?  These are just few of the questions.  In terms of ‘direction’: what ideology will guide their actions if they succeed in deposing president Kiir from the leadership of SPLM and by implication from the government?  

Riek having failed in selling his case, the people of South Sudan should not waste their time on him and his group.  They are essentially clowns of the Oyee machine and system. There are not good for South Sudan and South Sudan does not need them.  Ciao!

There are more capable leaders who the people need to start interacting and focusing on.  SPLM-DC has the potential to provide leadership but its main weakness lies in its name.  Being an off shoot of the Oyee and carrying part of the Oyee identity in its name tarnishes its image.  Presently, brand SPLM in the mind of the average person in the country evokes nightmare.  It stands for corruption, lawlessness, disorder, chaos etc.  Unfortunately by association of the name only, SPLM-DC may not be taken seriously by the electorate.  For its leadership to be noticed and taken seriously it will need to jettison the acronym SPLM to enable it to sell its vision to the country. 

Looking widely there are potential leaders who have so far remained silent.  These should be encouraged and supported to take the mantle of leadership to rescue our country.  In my article, ‘Vice President Gen. James Wani Igga’s Folly’ http://allafrica.com/stories/201309240445.html  I briefly drew the attention of the readers to behaviour of two persons: Justice Peter Sule and honourable Richard K. Mulla.  The duo is just an example of capable leaders out there.  The selfless and patriotic stand they took with the issue of the interim constitution prior to independence reveals the calibre of leadership that might just save the country.  In fighting for a democratic interim constitution, it can safely be inferred that these are people who seem to believe in fairness and justice for all the people of South Sudan unlike those (Riek et al) who imposed an oppressive document on the people and created a dictator in the person of president Kiir.  Had the people and especially the rubber stamp parliament heeded Sule and Mulla’s words of wisdom the current chaos would not have visited the country because president Kiir would not have had the powers to exercise dictatorship.  Their values obviously may have been influenced by their legal training and that should be highly welcome.

Turning to vice president Wani Igga’s several arranged National Liberation Council meetings for 22nd October 2013, 23rd November 2013 and 9th December 2013; none of which materialised.  Every time Igga announces a meeting he insists it will happen only for the meeting to be cancelled at the last moment without any explanation.  He constantly inconveniences people and arrogantly moves on without any apology.  Is this behaviour of a sane person?  It smacks of someone who has lost touch with reality.   It appears that both the vice president and the president are operating in a world of their own.  They are so immersed in their world of delusion to the extent that they can not see that they are alienating the people.  More and more it appears that the reason for the constant postponements of these NLC meeting is nothing but manifestation of fear of the unknown.  They must be terrified of what might come their way should they hold it.

As the fight, in conclusion, is an internal SPLM thing and the two groups have disappointed and continue to disappoint, the people of South Sudan need to connect with the silent leaders.  These silent leaders living among them experience the daily pain and therefore understand their sufferings and rights.  It is abundantly clear the Oyeeites are people who truly are out of touch with reality in South Sudan.  They have no clue of the damage they inflicted on the country, hence Riek’s insulting press statement.

[Truth hurts but it is also liberating]

The author lives in the Republic of South Sudan. He can be reached at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

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